Andean Tinamou Nothoprocta pentlandii
Version: 1.0 — Published March 14, 2014
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Seven subspecies recognized; these subspecies form two groups, drab gray populations in the east (pentlandii, doeringi, and mendozae) and browner populations in the west (fulvescens, oustaleti, niethammeri, and ambiguua) (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).
ambigua, described as Nothoprocta ambigua Cory 1915; type locality Hacienda Llagueda, northeast of Otuzco, La Libertad, Peru
Occurs in the western Andes of southern Ecuador and northwestern Peru, chiefly at high altitudes (Blake 1979); the population that occurs at lower elevations in northwestern Peru presumably is ambigua, but this has not been confirmed.
Subspecies ambigua is "closely similar to oustaleti, but general coloration slightly paler. Feathers of back with lighter edging, the sides being grayer and paler and the tips grayish ochre, rather than reddish brown; sides of head, throat, and abdomen often considerably whiter" (Blake 1977).
oustaleti, described as Nothoprocta oustaleti Berlepsch and Stolzmann 1901; type locality Coracora, Ayacucho, Peru.
Occurs in the Andes of central and southern Peru, chiefly at altitudes of 1500-3500 m (Blake 1979).
This subspecies is "similar to the nominate race, but feather margins of forehead brown, not gray; superciliaries buffy rather than grayish; dorsal feathers bordered with gray rather than brown; longitudinal streaks of back, often almost lacking in pentlandii, much broader and more conspicuous; throat distinctly buffy, more or less spotted posteriorly, not virtually uniform light grayish; lower foreneck and chest much less pure gray, and with distinctly larger buffy spots" Blake (1977).
niethammeri, described as Nothoprocta pentlandi [sic] niethammeri Koepcke 1968; type locality lomas of Lachay, about 90 kilometers north of Lima, Peru
Occurs in the lomas of coastal central Peru (Lachay and vicinity of Lima); the population in the lomas of coastal Arequipa also may represent niethammeri, or perhaps are an undescribed subspecies (Blake 1979).
This subspecies is "similar to oustaleti, but smaller, darker above, and with dark gray breast and light gray bars on flanks" Blake (1977).
fulvescens, described as Nothoprocta fulvescens Berlepsch 1902; type locality Urcos, Cuzco, Peru, 3500 m
Occurs in southeastern Peru (Cuzco).
This subspecies is "closely similar to oustaleti, but underparts somewhat darker, more uniform ochre; feathers of back with more reddish brown tips; light spotting of the outer primaries paler buff; upper chest more spotted" Blake (1977).
pentlandii, described as Rhynchotus Pentlandii (Gray 1867); type locality Andes of Bolivia
Occurs in Andes of Bolivia from La Paz south to Tarija; northern Chile in Arica; and northwestern Argentina in Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, and Catamarca (where intergrades with doeringi) (Blake 1979).
"Ground color of pileum, including forehead, gray instead of brown; a brownish (sometimes whitish) stripe intermixed with fuscous, extending from orbital region to sides of neck; throat more or less strongly tinged with gray, passing to bluish gray on chest and breast, where sometimes sparsely speckled with buff, especially posteriorly; sides and flanks gray to brownish, sometimes obscurely barred; abdomen whitish to creamy buff; ground color of dorsum essentially brownish instead of gray, the pale longitudinal stripes very narrow, usually sparse, and often virtually lacking" (Blake 1977).
doeringi, described as Nothoprocta doeringi Cabanis 1878; type locality Sierra Chica, near Córdoba, Argentina
Occurs in west central Argentina in San Luis and Córdoba (intergrading with pentlandii to northwest);
"Differs from the nominate race in grayer general tone of the dorsum, more heavily spotted upper breast, and less extensive pale abdominal area" (Blake 1977).
mendozae, described as Nothoprocta pentlandii mendozae Banks and Bohl 1968; type locality Quebrada de Canota, Mendoza, Argentina
Occurs in west central Argentina in Mendoza and northern Neuquén (Blake 1979).
Subspecies mendozae "differs from N. p. pentlandii and N. p. doeringi by having a much longer bill ... and additionally from pentlandii by a slightly longer wing, on average. The general tone of the dorsal coloration is gray, rather than brown, this appearance resulting from the color of the lateral edges of the back feathers. In this respect, mendozae is similar to doeringi but quite distinct from pentlandii. The breast is more heavily spotted than in pentlandii and the abdomen is darker than in either pentlandii or doeringi, being suffused with pale gray or grayish-brown rather than buff" (Banks and Bohl 1968).
The genus Nothoprocta is well-supported by analyses of both morphological and genetic characters (Bertelli et al 2002, Bertelli and Porzecanski 2004). The phylogenetic relationships within Nothoprocta are not resolved. Short (1975) suggested that Nothoprocta pentlandii formed a superspecies with Nothoprocta cinerascens (Brushland Tinamou) and Nothoprocta perdicaria (Chilean Tinamou). A phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters suggested that Nothoprocta pentlandii is sister to Nothoprocta cinerascens (Bertelli et al. 2002), but phylogenetic analysis combining morphological and genetic characters suggests that pentlandii may be the sister to either Nothoprocta taczanowskii (Taczanowski's Tinamou) or to Nothoprocta curvirostris (Curve-billed Tinamou) (Bertelli and Porzecanski 2004).