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The Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus gracilirostris) is a common species of the highlands of central Costa Rica, southeast into western Panama. It is the species of Catharus with the smallest distribution of any member of the genus, and is restricted to wet-montane forest and paramo areas from 1800 m up to timberline. Here it prefers to forage in the ground or at low vegetation, both in forested areas as well as human-disturbed habitats. Also it is a prolific singer, with males singing their highly melodic songs for long periods.