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Long considered to be endemic to Colombia, a new population of Bicolored Antpitta recently was discovered in northeastern Ecuador. As the English name suggests, this antpitta basically is two-toned, rufous above and gray below, with a slightly brighter reddish head. It is a globally threatened species that, in Colombia, is confined to the Central Andes chain in dense, humid montane forest and second growth at 1900–3150 m. Despite being considered Vulnerable, Bicolored Antpitta seems to tolerate considerable disturbance provided that forest cover is maintained. As with so many members of the Grallariidae, most aspects of the biology of Bicolored Antpitta remain poorly studied and, along with surveys for additional populations, should be considered as a primary focus for future research.