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The Crested Bobwhite is divided into two groups based on the plumage pattern, and the presence or absence of a crest: the "Spot-bellied Bobwhite" (Colinus cristatus leucopogon and five other subspecies) and the "Crested Bobwhite" (Colinus cristatus cristatus, and 13 other subspecies). The two groups have allopatric distributions. The "Spot-bellied" group is distributed in the dry forests from western Guatemala south to central Costa Rica, while the "Crested" group occurs from southwestern Costa Rica south to Panama, and across northern South America from Colombia to northeastern Brazil. The males become territorial during the breeding season. Outside of the breeding season, however, these quail may form groups of up to 20 individuals of both sexes.