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Endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southeast Brazil, the Red-billed Curassow is among the most range-restricted of the large cracids. Formerly resident in tall humid primary forest from southern Bahia south to Rio de Janeiro, hunting pressure and significant loss of habitat have left this species restricted to only seven forest fragments. Although these forest patches are protected, illegal hunting still occurs. The wild population is thought to be no more than 250 individuals; reintroduction occurred in three areas of Minas Gerais and in one area of Rio de Janeiro. Named for the red-knobbed bill and red wattles of the male, the female also is distinctive and indeed initially was described as a different species.