Tufted Tit-Tyrant Anairetes parulus
Version: 1.0 — Published October 30, 2015
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Three subspecies currently recognized (Traylor 1979, Dickinson and Christidis 2014), although some authors consider the subspecies to be poorly differentiated (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990):
aequatorialis, described as Anaeretes parulus aequatorialis Berlepsch and Taczanowski 1884; type locality Ceche, Chimborazo, Ecuador
Occurs from Colombia south to Bolivia and northwestern Argentina (Salta and Jujuy).
Subspecies aequatorialis is similar to nominate parulus, but the streaking on the underparts is broader and the wingbars are broader; differs from patagonicus by the browner upperparts, reduced white in the crown, and deeper yellow belly (Hellmayr 1927).
parulus, described as Muscicapa Parulus Kittlitz 1830; type locality Concepción and Valparaiso, Chile. Includes lippus Wetmore 1923.
Occurs in Chile and southwestern Argentina, from western Neuquén south to Tierra del Fuego
See Detailed Description.
patagonicus, described as Spizitornis parulus patagonicus Hellmayr 1920; type locality Neuquén, Terr. Neuquén, Argentina. Includes curatus Wetmore and Peters 1924.
Occurs in western Argentina from southern Mendoza to northern Santa Cruz; partially migratory, north to Salta.
Subspecies patagonicus is similar to nominate parulus, but the streaking on the underparts is broader, the wingbars are more well developed, the back is grayer, and the yellow of the belly is paler or even white (Hellmayr 1927).
Formerly classified in the genus Spizitornis (e.g., Hellmayr 1927), because the genus name Anairetes was thought to be preoccupied (Zimmer 1940).
Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data, from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, confirms that Anairetes is monophyletic (Roy et al. 1999, DuBay and Witt 2012). Within Anairetes, fernandezianus (Juan Fernandez Tit-Tyrant) is sister to parulus (Roy et al. 1999, DuBay and Witt 2012), and flavirostris (Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant) is sister to parulus/fernandezianus (DuBay and Witt 2012).
The genus Uromyias is sister to Anairetes (DuBay and Witt 2012). These two genera are members of a well-supported clade that also includes Mecocerculus leucophrys (White-throated Tyrannulet; but not other members of the genus Mecocerculus) and the genera Polystictus, Culicivora, Psuedocolopteryx, and Serpophaga (Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009).