The Key to Scientific Names

Edited by James A. Jobling
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Allē, the Lapp name of the Long-tailed Duck” (BOU 1915); “Actually alle is a widespread and well-known dialectal name for the Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis. The name is onomatopoeic and, like the first syllable in alfågel (the modern Swedish name), alludes to the beautiful call of the male which is usually transcribed as ‘a-AU-li’ or something similar. Linnaeus, as far as I know, never visited the Baltic coast during the winter or early spring and probably had only heard of the alle at second hand. Presumably he thought that this light-coloured seabird which only occurred in winter was the same as the Little Auk which he ...had only read about. Linnaeus did know of the Long-tailed Duck, but managed to partially confuse it with the Pintail” (Tommy Tyrberg in litt.); "a local [Swedish] dialectal name from ...Öland ...used for the ...Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle" (Björn Bergenholtz in litt.); "63. ALCA.  ...  Alle.  6. A. rostro lævi conico, abdomine fasciaque alarum alba, pedibus nigris.  Columba grœnlandica. Alb. av. l. p. 81. t. 85. Edw. av. 91. t. 91.  Mergus melanoleucus, rostro acuto brevi. Will. orn. 261. t. 59. Raj. av. 125. n. 5.  Habitat in Europæ, Americæ arcticæ oceanoPræcedentis feminam esse statuit Albinus, negant Edwardus & nostrates." (Linnaeus 1758) (Alle).


(Alcidae; Little Auk / Dovekie A. alle) Specific name Alca alle Linnaeus, 1758; "ALLE nigricans.  Schwärzliche Alle.  Alca Alle. Bechst. Orn. Tasch. 2 Th. S. 389.†.  Dieser Vogel unterscheidet sich sehr von der vorigen Gattung [Alca]; denn der Schnabel ist keinesweges so zusammengedrückt, sondern ziemlich dick, ungefurcht, mittelmäßig lang und fast ganz konisch. Er ist selten bey uns. Das Exemplar ist aus der Sammlung des Hn. Dr. Detharding." (Link 1806); "Alle Link, 1806, Beschreibung der Naturalien-Sammlung der Universität zu Rostock, I, p. 46.  Type, by tautonymy, Alle nigricans Link, 1806 = Alca alle Linnaeus, 1758.  Link doubtless intended to avoid the abhorrent tautonym Alle alle and gave the Little Auk a new specific name." (JAJ 2022).
Synon. Arctica, Cephus, Mergulus, Plautus.


Alleghanies / Allegheny Mts., part of Appalachian Mts., eastern USA.


Field Marshall Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby 1st Viscount Allenby of Megiddo (1861-1936) British Army cavalry officer, Commander of Egyptian Expeditionary Force 1917-1918, High Commissioner for Egypt 1919-1925 (syn. Charadrius pecuarius).


● Dr Joel Asaph Allen (1838-1921) US ornithologist, founding President of AOU 1883, Curator of AMNH 1885-1921 (syn. Ardenna pacifica, subsp. Buteo lineatus, subsp. Chrysuronia oenone, subsp. Coereba flaveola, subsp. Colaptes rubiginosus, subsp. Lagopus lagopus, syn. Phylloscartes ophthalmicus, subsp. Pipilo erythrophthalmus, syn. Rhynchotus rufescens, subsp. Spinus magellanicus, syn. Strix nebulosa, syn. Strix varia, subsp. Vireo crassirostris).
● Dr Elsa Guerdrum Allen (1888-?1976) US ornithologist, bibliographer (subsp. Arremon brunneinucha).
● Dr Glover Morrill Allen (1879-1942) US zoologist, Librarian of Boston Society of Natural History 1901-1927, Curator of Mammals at MCZ Harvard 1927-1938, traveller, collector (syn. Cisticola cinereolus schillingsi, subsp. Oriolus nigripennis, syn. Ploceus bojeri, syn. Turnix lepurana).
● Lt.-Commander Alfred Reginald Allen, Jr. (1905-1988) US Army, musician, Gen.-Manager Philadelphia Orchestra, Assistant Gen.-Manager Metropolitan Opera, New York, Curator of Gilbert & Sullivan Collection, Pierpoint Morgan Library, collector in South Africa (syn. Eupodotis rueppellii).
● Prof. Arthur Augustus Allen (1885-1964) US ornithologist, collector in Panama and Colombia 1911-1912, Professor of Ornithology Cornell Univ. 1912-1953 (Grallaria, syn. Oxyura jamaicensis).
● Rear-Adm. William Allen (1793-1864) Royal Navy, who took part in the Niger Expeditions 1832, 1841-1842 (Porphyrio).
● Charles Andrew Allen (1841-1930) US collector, taxidermist, woodsman (syn. Selasphorus sasin).


(Mimidae; Ϯ Scaly-breasted Thrasher A. fusca) Dr Joel Asaph Allen (1838-1921) US ornithologist, Curator of AMNH 1885-1921; "It is evident that the species in question should be separated generically from Cichlherminia, as Margarops cannot be used, the type being given as fuscatus. I therefore propose the name Allenia, in compliment to Dr. J. A. Allen of New York, for the new genus.   Allenia montana (LAFR.) Turdus montanus LAFR. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 107." (Cory 1891); "Allenia Cory, 1891, Auk, 8, p. 42. Type, by original designation, Turdus montanus Lafresnaye = Muscicapa fusca P. L. S. Müller." (Davis & Miller in Peters, 1960, IX, p. 457).


Jean Gérard Amédée Comte Alléon (1838-1904) French ornithologist, entomologist, collector in the Balkans and Turkey (Laurent Raty in litt.) (syn. Emberiza pallasi).

Prof. Arthur Augustus Allen (1885-1964) US ornithologist, collector in Panama and Colombia 1911-1912, Professor of Ornithology Cornell Univ. 1912-1953 (subsp. Agelaius phoeniceus).


(Callaeidae; syn. Callaeas South Island Kokako C. cinereus) Gr. καλλαια kallaia cock’s wattles; "2. Sous-famille. STURNIDIA. Les Sturniens. Bec allongé, non comprimé.  20. Glaucopis L.  21. Buphaga L.  22. Oriolus L.  23. Sturnus L. Quiscalis R.  24. Calleas R.  25. Icterus Daud.  26. Cacicus Daud.  27. Xanthornus R.  28. Cinclus R." (Rafinesque 1815).

Callena (See: Callene)

(Muscicapidae; syn. Cinclidium Blue-fronted Robin C. frontale) L. callainus  turquoise-coloured  < callaïs  turquoise  < Gr. καλλαις kallais  turquoise; "Sylvania, nobis.  General characters of Callene (formerly Cinclidium, nobis, XI, 181*)   ...   Callene (olim Cinclidium) frontalis, nobis, figured in XII, 1010. This form differs from the next [Brachypteryx] in its larger and stronger bill, more developed tail, and the somewhat scale-like character of its plumage; but in other respects it is hardly separable.   ...   * The name Cinclidium was pre-applied in Botany to a genus of mosses." (Blyth 1847); "Callene Blyth, 1847, Journal Asiatic Soc. Bengal, XVI (I), p. 136.  New name for Cinclidium Blyth, 1842, considered preoccupied in Botany." (JAJ 2021).  In biological nomenclature the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) are two completely separate disciplines, and a name created in one is not subject to the rules, articles, recommendations, declarations and opinions of the other.   
Var. Callena.

L. Cale or Portus Cale an ancient settlement and port at the mouth of the Douro River, Portugal.

Revd. Fr. Richard Callewaert (1866-1943) Belgian missionary to the Congo, naturalist, collector (syn. Numida meleagris galeatus, syn. Tchagra senegalus armenus).


(Trochilidaesyn. Stephanoxis Ϯ Green-crowned Plovercrest S. lalandi) Gr. κεφαλη kephalē  head; λεπις lepis, λεπιδος lepidos  scale, flake  < λεπω lepō  to peel; "Mr. Vigors exhibited several species of Humming-birds from the collection of Mr. John Gould, one of which, previously undescribed, had been dedicated to Mr. George Loddiges, F.L.S., &c. It approaches most nearly to Trochilus Lalandei, Vieill., but may be distinguished from that bird (in which the crest is brilliantly green and the throat and breast rich blue,) by the following characters: TROCHILUS LODDIGESII, Gould.   ...   Mr. Loddiges stated that both species belonged to a genus which he had distinguished among the Trochilidæ by the name of Cephallepis; and promised to bring before the Committee, at an early meeting, the results of his researches on the Trochilidæ generally." (Loddiges 1831); "Cephallepis Loddiges, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 1, 1830-31 (1831), p. 12. Type, by subsequent designation, Trochilus lalandi Vieillot. Not Cephalepis Rafinesque, 1810. (G. R. Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds., 1855, p. 23.)" (Peters, 1945, V, p. 30).
Var. Cephalolepsis, Cephalepis.


HMS Challenger, RN vessel on world circumnavigation, oceanographic and scientific expedition 1872-1876 (‡subsp. Eos histrio).

gallericulatus (See: galericulata / galericulatus)
galericulata / galericulatus

Late Med. L. galericulatus  hooded  < L. galericulum  peruke, wig  < dim. galerum  cap, bonnet  < galea  helmet.
● "61  ANAS.  ...  galericulata.  36. A. crista dependente, dorsoque postico utrinque penna recurvata compressa elevata.  Querquedula sinensis elegans. Edw. av. 102, t. 102.  Kinmodsuis. Kæmph. jap. 129. t. 10.  Habitat in China.  Crista viridis rubraque. Rostrum & Pedes rubri. Dorsum fuscum maculis cæruleis. Pennæ dorsi erectæ rufæ obtusæ. Remex intimus, clausis alis, altero margine erigitur supra dorsum, rufus, antrorsum falcatus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Aix).
● ex Faucon Huppé of Levaillant 1798, pl. 28; both Kaup 1847, and Sundevall 1857, identify this bird as a poor representation of Falco peregrinus minor (Falco peregrinus artefact).
● ex Geai Noir à Collier Blanc of Levaillant 1801 (Platylophus).


Glover Morrill Allen (1879-1942) US zoologist, collector (‡Titanohierax).

jalle (See: jalla)

Javanese names Jallak or Jallak-uring for the Asian Pied Starling (subsp. Gracupica contra).


"Hemos nombrado esta subespecie lasallei en honor del Santo Fundador de la Institución Lasaliana, como un sencillo homenaje en el tricentenario de su nacimiento" (Aveledo & Gines 1952) (OD per Martin Schneider); St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle (1651-1719) French priest, educational reformer, founder of the Frères des Écoles Chrétiennes or Brothers of the Christian Schools 1679, patron saint of teachers (subsp. Formicarius rufipectus).


Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (1873-1956) French colonial administrator,  Resident Superior in Cambodia 1914, Resident Superior in Tonkin 1915-1916, Gov. of Cochinchina 1916-1921 (Cutia).


L. malleator, malleatoris  hammerer  < obsolescent malleare  to hammer  < malleus hammer, mallet.

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