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Andean Flamingo is one of the two flamingos in the genus Phoenicoparrus. These two species - Andean, and James's Flamingo (Phoenicoparrus jamesi) - are distinguished from other flamingos (Phoenicopterus and Phoeniconaias) by their deep lower mandible, and very long filtering filaments on the maxilla. Andean Flamingo is the largest of the three flamingos of the Andes. It has yellow tarsi as an adult, and a large black triangle on the rear parts that helps to separate it from the other species. It breeds colonially on high Andean alkaline lakes in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina, most above 3000 m in elevation. The species is largely restricted to similar habitats in the nonbreeding period although some venture to the lowlands of the Argentine Chaco, spending time at Laguna Mar Chiquita. Breeding rates are consistently low, and it is estimated that the species suffered a population decline between the 1970s and 1990s, with present population estimates of only 38,000-39,000 individuals, making this the rarest species of flamingo. Accordingly, Andean Flamingo is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.