SPECIES

Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Scientific name definitions

David A. Buehler
Version: 2.0 — Published October 7, 2022

Tables and Appendices

Appendix 1

Mean levels of DDE (ppm, wet weight) in Bald Eagle eggs, eggshell thickness (in mm), and number of young produced per occupied nest, from different regions of North America.

Region/years DDE (ppm, wet weight) mean (range, n) Shell thickness (mm) mean ± SE (n) Young/occupied nest (years) References
Alaska 1969–1975 1.3 (0.3–3.9, 15) 0.584 ± 0.015 (7) 1.02 (1963–1970)a Sprunt et al. 1973, Wiemeyer et al. 1984
Alaska 1983 0.7 (1) 0.59 (1) 1.41 (1972–1981)b Hodges 1982, Wiemeyer et al. 1993
Alaska, Aleutians 2000–2002 1.2 (0.04–2.28, 21, Kiska Island) 0.64 ± 0.01 (fresh eggs) 1.36 (2000–2002) Anthony et al. 2007
Florida pre–1947 No data 0.584 ± 0.035 (211) 1.20 (1939–1946)c Broley 1947, Anderson and Hickey 1972
Florida 1969–1979 5.6 (2.0–13.0, 6) 0.510 ± 0.028 (5) 1.14 (1973–1976)c McEwan and Hirth 1979, Wiemeyer et al. 1984
Florida 1980–1984 2.5 (1.3–4.9, 2) 0.487 ± 0.053 (3) 0.98c Wiemeyer et al. 1993, Nesbitt 1998
New Jersey 1993–1997 12.8 (6.3–18.0, 5) 0.553 ± 0.016 (5) 0.71, 1.26 (1988–1997)d Clark et al. 1998b
Oregon 1979–1983 5.2 (1.6–20.0, 9) 0.543 ± 0.010 (9) 0.3, 0.95d Wiemeyer et al. 1984, Wiemeyer et al. 1993
Oregon 1985–1987 9.7 (4.0–20.0, 17) 0.548 (17) 0.74e Anthony et al. 1993
British Columbia 1990–1992 2.8 (0.7–8.7, 34) 0.575 ± 0.006 (25) 0.67f Elliott et al. 1996c, Elliott and Norstrom 1998
Wisconsin 1976–1979 3.8 (0.7–29.0, 21) 0.564 ± 0.011 (21) 1.15c Wiemeyer et al. 1984, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990
Wisconsin 1980–1983 2.1 (0.1–14.0, 28) 0.566 ± 0.011 (16) 0.9, 1.25d U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990, Wiemeyer et al. 1993
Wisconsin 1990–1993 3.3 (31) No data 1.76f Dykstra et al. 1998
Lake Superior 1989–1993 18.9 (36) No data 0.99f Dykstra et al. 1998
Great Lakes: MI, OH 1986–2000 (shoreline) 5.6 (86) 0.58 ± 0.04 (86) 0.88 (1986–2000) Best et al. 2010
Great Lakes: MI, OH 1986–2000 (inland) 1.39 (111) 0.60 ± 0.05 (111) 1.02 (1986–2000) Best et al. 2010
Maine 1974–1979 14.0 (4.8–42.0, 7) 0.527 ± 0.014 (15) 0.52(1972–1979)c Wiemeyer et al. 1984, Owen et al. 1991
Maine 1980–1984 8.3 (5.0–16, 11) 0.524 ± 0.021 (7) 0.76(1980–1984)c Owen et al. 1991,

  • (a) Data from Kodiak Island, Alaska.
  • (b) Data from southeast Alaska.
  • (c) Regional or statewide data.
  • (d) Data from nests where eggs were collected after failure to hatch, and statewide.
  • (e) Includes nests where eggs were not collected.
  • (f) Five-year average for region where eggs were collected.

Appendix 2

Bald Eagle reproductive statistics across range for time periods pre- to post-DDT.

Region (years) Total Nests Percentage Occupied Young per Occupied Nest Reference
Alaska        
1959–1962 38 52 0.8 Hensel and Troyer 1964
1963–1970 312 61 0.9 Sprunt et al. 1973
1989–1994 745 52 0.8 Steidl et al. 1997
Kodiak Island 1963 326 48 1.1 Zwiefelhofer 2007
Kodiak Island 2002 979 55 0.87 Zwiefelhofer 2007
Florida        
1939–1946 392 70 1.2 Broley 1947
1961–1972 592 50 0.7 Sprunt et al. 1973
1973–1979 1,674 61 0.9 Nesbitt 1998
1980–1989 3,759 67 1.1 Nesbitt 1998
1990–1998 6,725 76 1.2 Nesbitt 1998
1997–2001 120 90 1.32 Millsap et al. 2004
Oregon        
1971–1979 252 75 1.1 Isaacs and Anthony 1998
1980–1989 1,237 58 0.9 Isaacs and Anthony 1998
1990–1998 2,050 60 0.9 Isaacs and Anthony 1998
1971–2007 9,585 84.8 0.97 Isaacs and Anthony 2011
Saskatchewan        
1968–1979 244 70 1 Gerrard et al. 1992a
1981–1991 322 67 1 Gerrard et al. 1992a
Maine        
1962–1976 421 27 0.33 Todd and Weik 1998
1977–1989 870 50 0.7 Todd and Weik 1998
1990–1997 1,286 57 0.8 Todd and Weik 1998
Chesapeake Bay        
1936 39 79 1.6 Tyrrell 1936
1962 37 14 0.2 Abbott 1962a
1970 55 31 0.4 Abbott 1970
1981–1990 1,448 70 1.2 Buehler et al. 1991a
Wisconsin (Inland)        
1962–1970 492 66 1.3 Sprunt et al. 1973
1980–1989 2,422 76 1.3 U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990
Great Lakes        
1961–1970 156 10 0.1 Sprunt et al. 1973
1977–1989 513 65 0.6 Bowerman 1993
1990–1993 456 81 0.8 Bowerman 1993
Yellowstone        
1960–1973 38 45 0.8 Swenson et al. 1986
1974–1982 70 27 0.4 Swenson et al. 1986

Appendix 3

Linear measurements (mean and range in mm) of adult Bald Eagles from southern (Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Baja California) and northern (Alaska, Northwest Territories, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Arkansas, Iowa, and North Carolina) populations from Friedmann 1950; Alaska data from Imler and Kalmbach 1955.

Southern populationsNorthern populationsAlaska
Wing-chord
Male529.2 (515–545, 16)588.6 (570–612, 29)585.7 (555–612, 35)
Female576.5 (548–588, 11)(1)640.2 (605–685, 16)625.1 (590–655, 37)
Tail
Male248.5 (232–264, 16)309.7 (290–322, 29)289.8 (274–302, 35)
Female271.2 (247–286, 11)(1)339.4 (300–365, 16)304.0 (282–325, 37)
Culmen
Male49.8 (49–52, 16)52.5 (49–57, 29)65.3 (62–68, 35)
Female32.7 (30–35, 11)(1)54.1 (47–58, 16)71.4 (68–75, 37)
Tarsus
Male96.0 (95–97, 16)99.8 (84.5–106, 29)
Female103.0 (101–107, 11)(1)101.9 (83–110, 16)
Toe
Male61.5 (60–63, 16)70.4 (67–74, 29)
Female71.8 (66–77, 11)(1)74.5 (70–82, 16)

  • (1)Wing measurements based on 42 individuals; culmen measurement for southern females by Friedmann (Friedmann 1950a) apparent in error.

Recommended Citation

Buehler, D. A. (2022). Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and S. G. Mlodinow, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.baleag.02