Black-throated Tit Aegithalos concinnus Scientific name definitions
Version: 2.0 — Published December 22, 2020
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Season relatively early, March-May (sometimes to June) in northeastern India and Myanmar, April in northwestern Thailand, and late February-May in China (15, 16, 13). In the western portion of its range, the breeding season of A. c. iredalei is similar, March-May/June. Breeding season of A. c. annamensis is similar, but extends from February-June. Black-throated Tits are single-brooded.
Nest usually sited up to 3 m above ground in fork or woven around several twigs in low tree or bush, occasionally to 12 m up on horizontal bough of deodar (Cedrus) or at tip of a pine branch, rarely in rough grass or other low, tangled vegetation (13).
Nest built by both sexes, female taking dominant role, with birds working over a protracted period, 10-11 days in central China (northeastern Sichuan; 16), and sometimes taking up to one month to finish nest construction in central China (southern Henan; 13).
Structure and Composition
Nests are made from green moss , lichen, rootlets, bark scraps, hair, spider egg cases, and vegetable down, bound together with spider webs , and densely lined with feathers and sometimes also wool, fur, or vegetable down. Black-throated tits also observed to steal nesting material from other species in central China (Henan; 13).
Nest is an oval ball 100-150 mm tall × 95-140 mm wide, with an entrance hole at side near top (13).
Average size 13.09 × 10.14 mm (13).
Color and Surface Texture
Eggs described as white or pale pink, variably but usually finely spotted reddish, especially in a ring at larger end, occasionally unmarked (13).
Clutch size three eggs in northeastern India and northern Myanmar, 3-5 in western Myanmar (Chin Hills), and 7 eggs in central China (southern Henan; 13). In the western portion of its range, clutch size 3-8 (but generally 3-6) for A. c. iredalei.
Eggs are laid at 24-hour intervals.
Incubation by female or by both sexes (male roosts in nest), with the incubation period ca. 14-16 days (13).
Duration of nestling period in central China (southern Henan) on average 15 days (13).
Black-throated Tits are sometimes cooperative breeders, with 1-2 helpers (usually males who are failed breeder and redirect help to close kin), especially during provisioning stage; in a study in central China (southern Henan), ca. 20% of nests tended by helpers, which commonly assisted in provisioning offspring (13); helpers also occasionally observed incubating as per another study in central China (northeastern Sichuan; 16).
After fledging, young are dependent on parents for at least ten days.