SPECIES

Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta pusilla Scientific name definitions

Gary L. Slater, John D. Lloyd, James H. Withgott, and Kimberly G. Smith
Version: 1.1 — Published August 18, 2021

References

Welcome to Birds of the World!

You are currently viewing one of the free accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of the World. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this account.

For complete access to all accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign in

Literature Cited

  • 1. Norris, R. A. (1958b). Comparative biosystematics and life history of the nuthatches Sitta pygmaea and Sitta pusilla. University of California Publications in Zoology 56:119-300.
  • 2. Karikehalli, S. (2018). The Bahama Nuthatch, thought to be lost to hurricanes, is not extinct -- yet. Audubon News. https://www.audubon.org/news/the-bahama-nuthatch-thought-be-lost-hurricanes-not-extinct-yethttps://www.audubon.org/news/the-bahama-nuthatch-thought-be-lost-hurricanes-not-extinct-yet
  • 3. American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds. Edition 6. American Ornithologists' Union, Lawrence, KS, USA.https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34735248
  • 4. Chesser, R. T., S. M. Billerman, K. J. Burns, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, B. E. Hernández-Baños, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, N. A. Mason, and P. C. Rasmussen. 2021. Sixty-second Supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds. Ornithology 138:1-18.
  • 5. Hayes, W.K., Barry, R.X., McKenzie, Z. and Barry, P. (2004). Grand Bahama’s Brown-headed Nuthatch: a distinct and endangered species. Bahamas J. Sci. 12(1): 21–28.
  • 6. Boesman, P., and N. J. Collar (2020). Further vocal evidence for treating the Bahama Nuthatch Sitta (pusilla) insularis as a species. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140:393–403.
  • 7. Levy, H. E., and J. A. Cox (2020). Variation in responses to interspecific vocalizations among sister taxa of the Sittidae: Imminent extinction of a cryptic species on Grand Bahama Island? Avian Conservation and Ecology 15:15.
  • 8. Banks, R. C. (1978b). Prealternate molt in nuthatches. Auk 95:179-181.
  • 9. Ridgway, R. (1904). The birds of North and Middle America. Part III. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 50, part 3.http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7491864
  • 10. Oberholser, H. C. (1974a). "Flammulated Scops Owl." In The birdlife of Texas., edited by Jr E. B. Kincaid, 446-447. Austin: Univ. Texas Press.
  • 11. Harrap, S. and D. Quinn. (1995). Chickadees, tits, nuthatches and treecreepers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
  • 12. Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California, USA.
  • 13. Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76: 1–31.
  • 14. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: a review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.https://doi.org/10.1650/7225
  • 15. Stevenson, H.M. and Anderson, B.H. (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
  • 16. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.
  • 17. Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Molt in North American birds. Condor 112:862-863.
  • 18. Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13: 73–360.
  • 19. Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22: 49–89.
  • 20. Ridgway, R. (1904). The birds of North and Middle America. Part III. United States National Museum Bulletin 50(3): 1–801.
  • 21. Bangs, O. (1898). Some new races of birds from eastern North America. Auk 15:173-183.
  • 22. Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
  • 23. Howell, A. H. (1930). Description of a new subspecies of the Prairie Warbler, with remarks on two other unrecognized Florida races. Auk 47:41-43.
  • 24. Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.
  • 25. Norris, R. A., and D. W. Johnston (1958). Weights and weight variations in summer birds from Georgia and South Carolina. Wilson Bulletin 70(2):114-129.
  • 26. Han, K.-L., Cox, J.A. and Kimball, R.T. (2015). Uncommon levels of relatedness and parentage in a cooperatively breeding bird, the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Wilson J. Orn.. 127(4): 593–600.https://doi.org/10.1676/14-193.1
  • 27. Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA.
  • 28. Mayr, E., and L. L. Short (1970). Species Taxa of North American Birds: A Contribution to Comparative Systematics. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 9, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • 29. James, D. A., and J. C. Neal (1986). Arkansas Birds: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR, USA.
  • 30. Haney, J. C. (1981). The distribution and life history of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) in Tennessee. Migrant 52:77-86.
  • 31. Robinson, J. C. (1990). An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN, USA.
  • 32. Whitehurst, G. (1986). Range extension of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in western North Carolina. Chat 50:19.
  • 33. Hess, G. K., R. L. West, M. V. Barnhill III, and L. M. Fleming (2000). Birds of Delaware. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
  • 34. Hamel, P. B. (1992). Land Manager's Guide to the Birds of the South. The Nature Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service, Southern Region, Atlanta, GA, and Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
  • 35. Oberholser, H. C. (1938). The Bird Life of Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Conservation Bulletin 28.
  • 36. Root, T. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • 37. Bull, J. (1974). Birds of New York State. Doubleday Natural History Press, Garden City, NY, USA.
  • 38. Santner, S. J., D. W. Brauning, G. Schwalbe and P. W. Schwalbe. (1992). Annotated list of the birds of Pennsylvania. Penna. Biol. Surv. Contrib. 4.
  • 39. Robbins, S. D., Jr. (1991). Wisconsin Birdlife: Population and Distribution, Past and Present. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, USA.
  • 40. Mumford, R. E., and C. E. Keller (1984). The Birds of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA.
  • 41. Leck, C. F. (1984). The Status and Distribution of New Jersey's Birds. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
  • 42. Robertson, Jr., W. B. and J. A. Kushlan. (1974). "The southern Florida avifauna." In Environments of south Florida: present and past. Miami Geol. Soc. Mem. 2:414-452.
  • 43. Jackson, J. A. (1988c). "The southeastern pine forest ecosystem and its birds: past, present, and future." In Bird conservation 3., edited by J. A. Jackson, 119-159. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.
  • 44. Robbins, M. B., and D. A. Easterla (1992). Birds of Missouri: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, USA.
  • 45. Smith, K. G. and D. R. Petit. (1988). Breeding birds and forestry practices in the Ozarks: past, present, and future relationships. Bird Conserv. 3:23-49.
  • 46. Baumgartner, E. M., and A. M. Baumgartner (1992). Oklahoma Bird Life. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.
  • 47. Wright, H. A. and A. W. Bailey. (1982). Fire ecology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 48. Dickson, J. G., R. N. Conner and J. H. Williamson. (1980). Relative abundance of breeding birds in forest stands in the southeast. South. J. Appl. For. 4:174-179.
  • 49. Slater, G. (1997). Brown-headed Nuthatches and Eastern Bluebirds in southern Florida pinelands: breeding biology, nest-site selection, and the influence of habitat on nesting success. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
  • 50. Johnston, D. W. and E. P. Odum. (1956). Breeding bird population in relation to plant succession on the Piedmont of Georgia. Ecology 37:50-62.
  • 51. Meyers, J. M. and A. S. Johnson. (1978). "Bird communities associated with succession and management of loblolly-shortleaf pine forests." In Proceedings of the workshop: management of southern forests for nongame birds., edited by R. M. DeGraaf, 50-65. Asheville, NC: U.S. Dept. Agric., For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report SE-14.
  • 52. Johnson, A. S. and J. L. Landers. (1982). Habitat relationships of summer resident birds in slash pine flatwoods. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:416-428.
  • 53. Repenning, R. W. and R. F. Labisky. (1985). Effects of even-age timber management on bird communities of the longleaf pine forest in northern Florida. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:1088-1098.
  • 54. Wilson, C. W., R. E. Masters and G. A. Bukenhofer. (1995a). Breeding bird response to pine-grassland community restoration for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:56-67.
  • 55. Conner, R. N., J. G. Dickson, B. A. Locke, and C. A. Segelquist (1983). Vegetation characteristics important to common songbirds in east Texas. Wilson Bulletin 95(3): 349–361.
  • 56. Dickson, J. G. and C. A. Segelquist. (1979). Breeding bird populations in pine and pine-hardwood forests in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:549-555.
  • 57. O'Halloran, K. A. and R. N. Conner. (1987). Habitat used by Brown-headed Nuthatches. Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 20:7-13.
  • 58. Yaukey, P. H. (1996). Patterns of avian population density, habitat use, and flocking behavior in urban and rural habitats during winter. Prof. Geogr. 48:70-81.
  • 59. Morse, D. H. (1967b). Foraging relationships of Brown-headed Nuthatches and Pine Warblers. Ecology 48:94-103.
  • 60. Morse, D. H. (1970). Ecological aspects of some mixed species foraging flocks of birds. Ecological Monographs 40:119–168.
  • 61. Monroe, Jr., B. L. (1977). Summary of highest counts of individuals for Canada and the U.S. American Birds 31:910-916.
  • 62. Fleetwood, R. J. (1946). Unusual matings of a Brown-headed Nuthatch. Bird-Banding 17:75-76.
  • 63. Simpson, M. B. J. (1969). Nesting of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in the southern Appalachian mountains. Chat 33:103-104.
  • 64. Nesbitt, S. A. and W. M. Hetrick. (1976). Foods of the Pine Warbler and Brown-headed Nuthatch. Florida Field Naturalist 4:28-33.
  • 65. Yaukey, P. H. (1997). Multiscale patterns of flocking and activities of Brown-headed Nuthatches. Phys. Geogr. 18:88-100.
  • 66. Bent, A. C. (1948). Life histories of North American nuthatches, wrens, thrashers, and their allies. United States National Museum Bulletin 195.
  • 67. Morse, D. H. (1968b). The use of tools by Brown-headed Nuthatches. Wilson Bulletin 80:220-224.
  • 68. Pranty, B. (1995b). Tool use by Brown-headed Nuthatches in two Florida slash pine forests. Florida Field Naturalist 23:33-34.
  • 69. Howell, A. H. (1932). Florida bird life. Coward-McCann, New York, NY, USA.
  • 70. McNair, D. B. (1983b). Brown-headed Nuthatches store pine seeds. Chat 47:47-48.
  • 71. Morris, S. M. (1982). Nesting activities of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in Louisiana. Master's Thesis, Louisiana Tech. Univ., Ruston.
  • 72. Yaukey, P. H. (1995). Effects of food supplementation and predator simulation on nuthatches and parids within mixed-species flocks. Wilson Bulletin 107:542-547.
  • 73. Houck, W. J. and J. H. Oliver. (1954). Unusual nesting behavior of the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Auk 71:330-331.
  • 74. Barbour, D. B. and A. R. DeGange. (1982). Reciprocal allopreening in the brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Auk 99:171.
  • 75. Emlen, J. T. (1981). Divergence in the foraging responses of birds on two Bahama islands. Ecology 62:289-295.
  • 76. Jackson, J. A. (1983d). "Commensal feeding of Brown-headed Nuthatches with Red-cockaded Woodpeckers." In Red-cockaded Woodpecker symposium II proceedings., edited by D. A. Wood, 101. Tallahassee, FL: Fla. Game Fresh Water Fish Commission.
  • 77. McNair, D. B. (1984c). Clutch-size and nest placement in the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Wilson Bulletin 96:296-301.
  • 78. Beers, C. D. (1952). Utilization of a nest-box by the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Chat 16:78-80.
  • 79. Norwood, J. and R. Norwood. (1956). Nesting observations of Brown-headed Nuthatches. Chat 20:73-74.
  • 80. Pearson, T. G. (1936). Birds of America. New York: Garden City Publ. Co.
  • 81. Withgott, J. H. (1994). Behavior and ecology of the black rat snake (Elaphe o. obsoleta), and its predation on birds' nests. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
  • 82. Withgott, J. H. (1996). Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Black Rat Snake): Foraging. Herpetol. Rev. 27:81-82.
  • 83. Bailey, H. H. (1913). The birds of Virginia. Lynchburg, Virginia: J.P. Bell Co.
  • 84. Quay, T. L. (1955). Brown-headed Nuthatch uses nest-box. Chat 19:87-88.
  • 85. Burleigh, T. D. (1944b). The bird life of the Gulf Coast region of Mississippi. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. La. State Univ. 20:329-490.
  • 86. Norwood, J. and R. Norwood. (1959). Brown-headed nuthatch-a second brood. Chat 23:82.
  • 87. Martin, T. E. (1993c). Evolutionary determinants of clutch size in cavity-nesting birds: nest predation or limited breeding opportunities? American Naturalist 142:937-946.
  • 88. Robinson, Jr., E. J. (1954a). Notes on the occurrence and biology of filarial nematodes in southwestern Georgia. Journal of Parasitology 40:138-147.
  • 89. Greiner, E. C., G. F. Bennett, E. M. White, and R. F. Coombs (1975). Distribution of avian hematozoa of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1762–1787.
  • 90. Love, G. J., S. A. Wilkin, and M. H. Goodwin (1953). Incidence of Blood Parasites in Birds Collected in Southwestern Georgia. Journal of Parasitology 39:52–57.https://doi.org/10.2307/3274059
  • 91. Pence, D. B. (1972). The genus Oxyspirura (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) from birds in Louisiana. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 39: 23–28.
  • 92. Sauer, J. R., B. G. Peterjohn, S. Schwartz, and J. E. Hines (1996). The North American Breeding Bird Survey home page. Version 95.1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center.
  • 93. Weske, J. S. (1960). Summary of highest counts of individuals. Audubon Field Notes 14:277.
  • 94. Burleigh, T. D. (1958). Georgia birds. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.
  • 95. Smith, P. W. and S. A. Smith. (1994). A preliminary assessment of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in the Bahamas. Bahamas J. Sci. 1:22-26.
  • 96. Rowse, L. A. and W. R. Marion. (1981). "Effects of silvicultural practices on birds in a north Florida flatwoods." In Proceedings of the First Biennial Southern Silviculture Research Conference., edited by J. P. Barnett, 349-357. U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report SO-34.
  • 97. Kerpez, T. A. and D. F. Stauffer. (1989). "Avian communities of pine-hardwood forests in the Southeast: characteristics, management, and modeling." In Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type., edited by T. A. Waldrop, 156-169. U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report SE-58.
  • 98. Hirth, D. H., L. D. Harris and R. F. Noss. (1991). Avian community dynamics in a peninsular Florida longleaf pine forest. Florida Field Naturalist 19:33-48.
  • 99. Engstrom, R. T., R. L. Crawford, and W. W. Baker (1984). Breeding bird populations in relation to changing forest structure following fire exclusion: a 15-year study. Wilson Bulletin 96: 437–450.
  • 100. Petit, L. J., D. R. Petit, T. E. Martin, R. E. Thill and J. F. Taulman. (1994). "Predicting the effects Of ecosystem management harvesting treatments on breeding birds in pine-hardwood forests." In Proc. Symp. Ecosystem Management Research in the Ouachita Mountains: Pretreatment conditions and prelliminary findings, 117-125. U. S. Dept Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report SO-112.
  • 101. Morgan, K. A. and J. E. Gates. (1982). Bird population patterns in forest edge and strip vegetation at Remington Farms, Maryland. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:933-944.
  • 102. Meyers, J. M. and E. P. Odom. (1991). Breeding bird populations of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia: Baseline for assessing future avifaunal changes. Journal of Field Ornithology 62:53-68.
  • 103. Land, E. D. (1986). Snag characteristics and their relationships to cavity nesting birds in slash pine plantations of north-central Florida. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
  • 104. Noble, R. E. and R. B. Hamilton. (1975). Bird populations in even-aged loblolly pine forests of southeastern Louisiana. Proc. Annual Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 29:441-450.
  • 105. Dickson, J. G. and C. A. Segelquist. (1977). Winter bird populations in pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in East Texas. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies 31:134-137.
  • Additional References

    • Allen, J. C., S. M. Krieger, J. R. Walters and J. A. Collazo. (2006a). Associations of breeding birds with fire-influenced and riparian-upland gradients in a longleaf pine ecosystem. Auk 123 (4):1110-1128.
    • Allen, J.C., Krieger, S.M., Walters, J.R. and Collazo, J.A. (2006). Associations of breeding birds with fire-influenced and riparian–upland gradients in a longleaf pine ecosystem. Auk. 123(4): 1110–1128.
    • American Ornithologists' Union (1957). Check-list of North American Birds, 5th Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.
    • Atwood, J. L. (1988). Speciation and geographic variation in Black-tailed Gnatcatchers. Ornithological Monographs 42.
    • Atwood, J. L. (1991). Subspecies limits and geographic patterns of morphological variation in California Gnatcatchers (Polioptila californica). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 90:118-133.
    • Atwood, J.L. and Bontrager, D.R. (2001). California Gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica). No. 574 in: Poole, A. & Gill, F. eds. (2001). The Birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences & American Ornithologists’ Union, Philadelphia & Washington, D.C.
    • Banks, R. C., C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, P. C. Rasmussen, Remsen, J. V., J. D. Rising, and D. F. Stotz (2006). Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 123(3):926–936.
    • Bent, A.C. (1948). Life histories of North American nuthatches, wrens, thrashers and their allies. US Natl. Mus. Bull.. 195: i–xi, 1–475, pls. 1–90.
    • Boesman, P. (2016). Notes on the vocalizations of Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). HBW Alive Ornithological Note 278. In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.https://doi.org/10.2173/bow-on.100278
    • Bond, J. (1931). A new nuthatch from the island of Grand Bahama. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 83:389.
    • Conner, R. N. (1978). "Snag management for cavity nesting birds." In Proceedings of the workshop: management of southern forests for nongame birds., edited by R. M. DeGraaf, 120-128. Asheville, NC: U.S. Dept. Agric., For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report SE-14.
    • Conner, R. N., C. E. Shackelford, R. R. Schaefer, D. Saenz and D. C. Rudolph. (2002). Avian community response to southern pine ecosystem restoration for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Wilson Bulletin 114 (3):324-332.
    • Cox, J. A. and G. L. Slater. (2007). Cooperative breeding in the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119 (1):1-8.
    • Cox, J. A. Social grooming in the Brown-headed Nuthatch has expanded functions. Southeastern Naturalist.
    • Cox, J. A., L. C. Scopel and M. R. Klostermann. (2012). Brown-headed Nuthatch occupancy in central Florida and its relationship to forest type, forest structure, and the presence of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Condor 114 (3):622-628.
    • Cox, J.A. and Slater, G.L. (2007). Cooperative breeding in the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Wilson J. Orn. 119(1): 1–8.
    • Cox, J.A., Scopel, L.C. and Klostermann, M.R. (2012). Brown-headed Nuthatch occupancy in central Florida and its relationship to forest type, forest structure, and the presence of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Condor. 114(3): 622–628.
    • Crossley, R. (2006). New Jersey's first Brown-headed Nuthatch. New Jersey Birds 32 (4):78-80.
    • Dornak, L. L., D. B. Burt, D. W. Coble and R. N. Conner. (2004). Relationships between habitat and snag characteristics and the reproductive success of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) in eastern Texas. Southeastern Naturalist 3 (4):683-694.
    • Dornak, L.L., Burt, D.B., Coble, D.W. and Conner, R.N. (2004). Relationships between habitat and snag characteristics and the reproductive success of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) in eastern Texas. Southeast. Nat. 3(4): 683–694.
    • Ellison, W. G. (2010). 2nd Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    • Emlen, J. T. (1977) Land bird communities of Grand Bahama Island: the structure and dynamics of an avifauna. Ornithological Monographs 24.https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/om/om024.pdf
    • Emlen, J. T. (1978). Density anomalies and regulatory mechanisms in land bird populations on the Florida peninsula. American Naturalist 112:265-286.
    • Emlen, J.T. (1977). Land Bird Communities of Grand Bahama Island: the Structure and Dynamics of an Avifauna. Orn. Monogr. 24. American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/om/om024.pdf
    • Emlen, J.T. (1978). Density anomalies and regulatory mechanisms in land bird populations on the Florida peninsula. Amer. Naturalist. 112(984): 265–286.
    • Emlen, J.T. (1981). Divergence in the foraging responses of birds on two Bahama islands. Ecology. 62(2): 289–295.
    • Ericson, P. G. P., and U. S. Johansson (2003). Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29:126-138.
    • Gilbert, L. (2001b). The surprise nuthatch. Ohio Cardinal 25:42-43.
    • Grishaver, M.A., Mock, P.J. and Preston, K.L. (1998). Breeding behavior of the California Gnatcatcher in southwestern San Diego County, California. Western Birds 29(4): 299-322.
    • Grzybowski, J. A. (1998c). The winter season: Southern Great Plains region. Field Notes 52:217-221.
    • Haas, S. E., J. A. Cox, J. V. Smith and R. T. Kimball. (2010). Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the cooperatively breeding Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Southeastern Naturalist 9 (4):743-756.
    • Haney, J.C. (1981). The distribution and life history of the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) in Tennessee. Migrant 52(4): 77–86.
    • Harrap, S., and D. Quinn (1996). Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers. Christopher Helm, London, UK.
    • Hayes, W. K., R. X. Barry, Z. McKenzie and P. Barry. (2004). Grand Bahama's Brown-headed Nuthatch: A distinct and endangered species. Bahamas Journal of Science 12 (1):21-28.
    • Hayes, W.K., Barry, R.X., McKenzie, Z. and Barry, P. (2004). Grand Bahama’s Brown-headed Nuthatch: a distinct and endangered species. Bahamas J. Sci.. 12(1): 21–28.
    • Herb, Jr., A. and D. B. Burt. (2000). Influence of habitat use patterns on cooperative breeding in the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 33:25-36.
    • Imhof, T. A. (1976). Alabama Birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, University, AL, USA.
    • Kale, H. W., Jr., B. S. Pranty, B. S. Stith, and C. W. Biggs. (1992). An Atlas of Florida's Breeding Birds. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    • Klaus, N. and Keyes, T. (2007). Effect of two native invasive tree species on upland pine breeding bird communities in Georgia. Wilson J. Orn.. 119(4): 737–741.
    • La Sorte, F. A., III Thompson, F. R., M. K. Trani and T. J. Mersmann. (2007). Population trends and habitat occurrence of forest birds on southern national forests, 1992-2004. In U. S. Forest Service General Technical Report. Newtown Square: U.S. Dep. Agric.
    • Lloyd, J. D. and G. L. Slater. (2007). Environmental factors affecting productivity of Brown-headed Nuthatches. Journal of Wildlife Management 71 (6):1968-1975.
    • Lloyd, J. D. and G. L. Slater. (2011a). Abundance and distribution of breeding birds in the pine forests of Grand Bahama, Bahamas. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 24:1-9.
    • Lloyd, J. D. and G. L. Slater. (2011b). Influence of fire and water regimes on pineland bird assemblages. Natural Areas Journal 31 (3):270-282.
    • Lloyd, J. D. and G. L. Slater. (2012). Fire history and the structure of pine-rockland bird assemblages. Natural Areas Journal 32 (3):247-259.
    • Lloyd, J. D., G. L. Slater and A. E. Metcalf. (2008). Taxonomy and population size of the Bahama Nuthatch. Final report to the National Geographic Society.
    • Lloyd, J. D., G. L. Slater and S. Snow. (2009). Demography of reintroduced Eastern Bluebirds and Brown-headed Nuthatches. Journal of Wildlife Management 73 (6):955-964.
    • Lloyd, J.D. and Slater, G.L. (2011). Abundance and distribution of breeding birds in the pine forests of Grand Bahama, Bahamas. J. Carib. Orn.. 24(1): 1–9.http://www.birdscaribbean.org/jco/index.php/jco/article/view/107
    • Lloyd, J.D., Slater, G.L. and Metcalf, A.E. (2008). Taxonomy and population size of the Bahama Nuthatch. Report to the National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration, Grant No. 8146-06.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Lloyd2/publication/228394066_Taxonomy_and_population_size_of_the_Bahama_Nuthatch/links/0912f50d45df51b40d000000.pdf
    • Matthysen, E. (1998). The Nuthatches. T. & A.D. Poyser, London.
    • McAllister, C. T. and C. R. Bursey. (2003). Orthoskrjabinia rostellata (Cestoidea: Dilepididae), from the Brown-headed Nuthatch, Sitta pusilla (Passeriformes: Sittidae), from northeastern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 55 (2):189-191.
    • McCarthy, E. M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
    • McNair, D.B. (1983). Brown-headed Nuthatches store pine seeds. Chat 47: 47–48.
    • McNair, D.B. (1984). Clutch-size and nest placement in the Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Wilson Bull. 96(2): 296–301.
    • Miller, K. E. and G. A. Jones. (1999). Nesting phenology and cooperative breeding of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in north Florida pinelands. Florida Field Naturalist 27 (3):89-94.
    • Miller, K.E. and Jones, G.A. (1999). Nesting phenology and cooperative breeding of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in north Florida pinelands. Florida Field Nat. 27(3): 89–94.
    • Morse, D.H. (1967). Foraging relationships of Brown-headed Nuthatches and Pine Warblers. Ecology 48: 94–103.
    • Morse, D.H. (1968). The use of tools by Brown-headed Nuthatches. Wilson Bull. 80(2): 220–224.https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v080n02/p0220-p0224.pdf
    • Norris, R.A. (1958). Comparative biosystematics and life history of the nuthatches Sitta pygmaea and Sitta pusilla. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 56(2): 119–300.
    • Ortego, B. (2007). Summary of highest counts of individuals for the United States. American Birds 61:123-128.
    • Palmer-Ball, Jr., B. (2003). Annotated checklist of the birds of Kentucky: Second edition.
    • Pardieck, K. L., D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., M. Lutmerding, V. I. Aponte, and M-A. R. Hudson (2020). North American Breeding Bird Survey Dataset 1966–2019: U.S. Geological Survey data release.https://doi.org/10.5066/P9J6QUF6
    • Phillips, A. R. (1986). The Known Birds of North and Middle America, Part I. Hirundinidae to Mimidae; Certhiidae. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO, USA.
    • Pranty, B. (1995). Tool use by Brown-headed Nuthatches in two Florida slash pine forests. Florida Field Naturalist. 23(2): 33–34.
    • Price, J., S. Droege, and A. Price (1995). The Summer Atlas of North American Birds. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.
    • Provencher, L., N. M. Gobris and L. A. Brennan. (2002a). Effects of hardwood reduction on winter birds in northwest Florida longleaf pine sandhill forests. Auk 119 (1):71-87.
    • Provencher, L., N. M. Gobris, L. A. Brennan, D. R. Gordon and J. L. Hardesty. (2002b). Breeding bird response to midstory hardwood reduction in Florida sandhill longleaf pine forests. Journal of Wildlife Management 66 (3):641-661.
    • Pyle, P. and P. Unitt. (1998). Molt and plumage variation by age and sex in the California and Black-tailed Gnatcatchers. Western Birds 29 (4):280-289.
    • Raffaele, H. A., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele (1998). A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
    • Reinking, D. L. (2004). Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.
    • Renfrow, F. (2003a). Notes on vagrancy in Brown-headed Nuthatch, with attention to recent range expansion and long-term habitat changes. North American Birds 57:422-428.
    • Rich, T. D., C. J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P. J. Blancher, M. S. W. Bradstreet, G. S. Butcher, D. W. Demarest, E. H. Dunn, W. C. Hunter, E. E. Iñigo-Elias, J. A. Kennedy, A. M. Martell, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, K. V. Rosenberg, C. M. Rustay, J. S. Wendt, and T. C. Will (2004). Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    • Robbins, C. S., and E. A. T. Blom (1996). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    • Root, T. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds. An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
    • Roy, W. K., J. W. Evans and M. G. Ryon. (2001). Red-headed Woodpecker and Brown-headed Nuthatch on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Relationship to recent landscape changes. Migrant 72:1-12.
    • Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski, K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Link (2017). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. Version 2.07.2017. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.https://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html
    • Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr., D. J. Ziolkowski, and W. A. Link. 2011. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2010 (Version 12.07.2011b). USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.
    • Schneider, T. M., G. Beaton, T. S. Keyes, and N. A. Klaus (2010). The Breeding Bird Atlas of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA, USA.
    • Semel, B. (2002). First Illinois record of the Brown-headed Nuthatch. Meadowlark 10:122-123.
    • Sheldon, F. H. and F. B. Gill. (1996). A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Syst. Biol. 45:471-493.
    • Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe Jr. (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA.
    • Slater, G. L. (2001). Avian restoration in Everglades National Park (1997-2001): Translocation methodology, population demography, and evaluating success. Final report to Everglades National Park.
    • Slater, G. L. (2004). Avian restoration in Everglades National Park: An evaluation of the Brown-headed Nuthatch and Eastern Bluebird reintroduction program during the 2-year post-translocation period (2002-2003). Final report to Everglades National Park.
    • Smith, P.W. and Smith, S.A. (1994). Preliminary assessment of the Brown-headed Nuthatch in the Bahamas. Bahamas J. Sci.. 1(2): 22–26.
    • Stanback, M., E. Cline, W. Anderson, L. Bergner, P. McGovern, A. Mercadante, D. Millican and J. Olbert. (2011). Bluebird-proof nest boxes increase Brown-headed Nuthatch breeding on southeastern golf courses. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online 10 (18):1-12.
    • Stanton, R.A., and Kesler, D.C. and Thompson, F.R. (2014). Resource configuration and abundance affect space use of a cooperatively breeding resident bird. Auk. 131(3): 407–420.
    • Steadman, D. W., S. L. Olson, J. C. Barber, C. A. Meister and M. E. Melville. (1980). Weights of some West Indian birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 100:155-158.
    • Steadman, D.W., Olson, S.L., Barber, J.C., Meister, C.A. and Melvill, M.E. (1980). Weights of some West Indian birds. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 100(2): 155–158.
    • Sullivan, J. (2011). Habitat variables associated with Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) nesting success in east Texas forests. M.Sc. thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches.
    • Survey, United States Geological. Longevity records of North American birds (20 Apr 2012b). U.S. Geological Survey 2012.
    • Taulman, J.F. and Smith, K.G. (2002). Habitat mapping for bird conservation in North America. Bird Conservation International. 12(4): 281–309.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270902002186
    • Thompson, T. K. (2000). Breeding biology and the nature and importance of helper contributions in the cooperative breeding Brown-headed Nuthatch in a Texas urban population. M.Sc. thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches.
    • Turcotte, W. H., and D. L. Watts (1999). Birds of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, MS, USA.
    • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Birds of Conservation Concern 2008. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Mangement, Arlington, VA, USA.
    • Wilson, M. D. and B. D. Watts. (1999). Response of Brown-headed Nuthatches to thinning of pine plantations. Wilson Bulletin 111 (1):56-60.
    • Wilson, M.D. and Watts, B.D. (1999). Response of Brown-headed Nuthatches to thinning of pine plantations. Wilson Bull.. 111(1): 56–60.
    • Withgott, J.H. and Smith, K.G. (1998). Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). No. 349 in: Poole, A. & Gill, F. eds. (1998). The Birds of North America. Vol. 9. The Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Recommended Citation

Slater, G. L., J. D. Lloyd, J. H. Withgott, and K. G. Smith (2021). Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), version 1.1. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.bnhnut.01.1