SPECIES

Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis

Len R. Reitsma, Michael T. Hallworth, Marissa McMahon, and Courtney J. Conway
Version: 2.0 — Published May 7, 2020

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Figures from this Account

Distribution of the Canada Warbler
Figure 1. Annual cycle of Canada Warbler breeding, migration, and molt.

Thick lines show peak activity; thin lines, off-peak.

Figure 2. Relative abundance of Canada Warbler during the breeding season.

Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, 2011–2015. See Sauer et al. (2017) for details.

Figure 3. Primary Song of male Canada Warblers.

Three examples of Primary Song of male Canada Warblers. Prepared by the staff of the Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics (BLB), The Ohio State University (BLB nos. 5311, 2909; Lincoln County, Maine; 30 June 1961, 7 March 1996, 24 June 1957).

Figure 4. Spectrograms of Mode II dawn singing by a male Canada Warbler.

Key characteristics of Mode II singing are a high song rate, continuous chip notes between songs, and use of specific low-frequency and low-amplitude phrases not used in Mode I.

Figure 5. Alarm Call of the Canada Warbler.

Prepared by the staff of the Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics (BLB no. 2111; Lincoln County, Maine; 1 July 1956).

Figure 6. Regional trends in Canada Warbler breeding populations.

Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, 1966–2015 (Sauer et al. 2017). Data show estimates of annual population change over the range of the survey; areas of increase are shown in blue and declines are shown in red. See Sauer et al. (2017) for details.

Recommended Citation

Reitsma, L. R., M. T. Hallworth, M. McMahon, and C. J. Conway (2020). Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.canwar.02