Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis

Len R. Reitsma, Michael T. Hallworth, Marissa McMahon, and Courtney J. Conway
Version: 2.0 — Published May 7, 2020

Priorities for Future Research

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Priorities for Future Research

Top priority should be to identify proximate and ultimate cause of observed population declines. Urgent need to survey numbers and trends of populations on overwintering grounds, identify important overwintering areas for conservation, and determine extent and rate of habitat loss on overwintering grounds. More research needed on extent of sensitivity to forest area, dependence on wetlands and effects of wetland loss on observed population declines. Need to determine extent and effects of brood parasitism on annual fecundity.

We need basic information on biology, natural history, and habitat needs. Priorities: estimates of adult and brood survival, nesting success, frequency of renesting following failure, site fidelity, and recruitment; examine environmental or habitat factors affecting survival, nest success, renesting probability, site fidelity, and recruitment; more data on incubation and nestling periods; information on nestling growth and development; quantify seasonal diets; quantify existence and function of pair bonds during migration and on overwintering grounds; extent of territoriality on overwintering grounds; extent and importance of joining mixed-species foraging flocks during the overwintering period.

Lower priority research for future should include factors influencing large variation in necklace color and pattern, and factors that influence individual reproductive performance in the context of local populations, as well as demographic differences, recruitment and reproductive output differences across populations.

Recommended Citation

Reitsma, L. R., M. T. Hallworth, M. McMahon, and C. J. Conway (2020). Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.canwar.02