SPECIES

Common Murre Uria aalge Scientific name definitions

David G. Ainley, David N. Nettleship, and Anne E. Storey
Version: 2.0 — Published August 6, 2021

Tables and Appendices

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Appendix 1

Linear measurements of the Common Murre by subspecies.a

  Culmen length Bill depth Wing length Tarsus length Source
U. a. aalge          
Eastern North America          
           Male 44.6 ± 1.7 (36) 13.8 ± 0.6 (35) 207 ± 5.5 (38) 38.4 ± 1.4 (38) Storer 1952a
           Female 43.2 ± 2.4 (39) 13.3 ± 0.5 (38) 209 ± 4.8 (39) 37.9 ± 1.3 (41)  
Witless Bay, Newfoundland        
           Male 44.3 ± 2.2 (121) 14.3 ± 1.0 (121) 201 ± 5.4 (121) 40.1 ± 3.2 (121) Threlfall and Mahoney 1980
           Female 42.4 ± 2.0 (117) 14.1 ± 0.9 (117) 202 ± 5.1 (117) 39.2 ± 2.9 (117)  
Gannet Island, Labrador          
           Adult 42.2 ± 2.22 (185) 13.2 ± 0.53 (184) 212.3 ± 4.72 (64)   Birkhead and Nettleship 1987a
Iceland and Western Sweden        
           Adult 46.70 (10) b 14.87 ± 0.65 (21) 202.1 ± 0.85 (27) 38.17 ± 1.11 (15) Storer 1952a
           
U. a. spiloptera           
Faeroes          
           Adult 47.20 (5) c 13.03 (4) 204.8 ± 6.55 (12) 36.61 ± 1.01 (13) Storer 1952a
           
U. a. intermedia           
Baltic          
           Adult 48.77 ± 1.44 (19)  15.12 ± 0.67 (21) 201.7 ± 4.32 (34) 36.65 ± 1.54 (10) Storer 1952a
           
U. a. albionis          
Britain          
           Adult 47.43 ± 2.25 (22)  13.08 ± 0.54 (16) 199.4 ± 4.70 (40) 36.36 ± 1.42 (59) Storer 1952a
           
U. a. inornata          
Alaska          
           Male 47.7 ± 2.2 (42) 14.5 ± 0.9 (42) 218 ± 5.7 (45) 38.9 ± 1.6 (40) Storer 1952a
           Female 45.8 ± 2.0 (24) 13.6 ± 0.9 (19) 217 ± 4.3 (25) 38.0 ± 1.2 (22)  
Alaska          
           Male 46.5 ± 2.7 (119) 15.2 ± 1.4 (18) 216.4 ± 9.9 (128) 41.8 ± 2.6 (85) J. Piatt, unpubl.
           Female 44.7 ± 2.3 (107) 14.3 ± 0.9 (11) 217.4 ± 13.0 (106) 41.2 ± 1.9 (80)  
Cape Thompson          
           Male 44.9 ± 1.8 (39)   217 ± 5.6 (41) 38.5 ± 1.5 (41) Swartz 1966
           Female 44.2 ± 2.0 (37)   215 ± 6.3 (38) 38.0 ± 1.8 (38)  
Cook Inlet          
           Male 47.3 ± 2.5 (49)   217.7 ± 13.9 (50) 42.3±1.7 (32) J. Piatt, unpubl.
           Female 45.5 ± 1.7 (43)   217.9 ± 19.3 (42) 41.2 ± 1.7 (27)  
Triangle Island, British Columbia        
           Breeding adult 47.1 +/- 2.6 (75) 14.7 +/- 0.7 (75) 216.4 +/- 3.9 (75) 40.4 +/- 1.6 (75) Hipfner and Greenwood 2008
           
U. a. californica          
California          
           Male 49.2 ± 2.0 (117) 13.7 ± 0.7 (117) 208 ± 4.5 (91) 38.3 ± 1.3 (122) Storer 1952a
           Female 47.1 ± 2.0 (62) 13.6 ± 0.7 (61) 209 ± 5.3 (61) 37.8 ± 1.3 (66)  
Central California          
           Male 49.3 ± 2.1 (48) 14.9 ± 0.6 (48) 208 ± 5.8 (34) 39.9 ± 1.0 (28) Storer 1952a
           Female 47.2 ± 1.9 (46) 14.5 ± 0.6 (46) 209 ± 4.7 (37) 39.6 ± 1.0 (26)  
Male (subadult) d 48.7 ± 2.0 (100) 13.2 ± 0.8 (100) 205 ± 5.4 (82) 40.1 ± 1.2 (63)  
Female (subadult) d 47.4 ± 1.8 (98) 12.9 ± 0.7 (98) 204 ± 5.2 (82) 39.4 ± 1.0 (67)  
Monterey Bay, California          
Male 50.2 ± 2.2 (343) 13.6 ± 0.7 (349) 205 ± 7 (234) 39.3 ± 2.1 (356) Nevins 2004
Female 48.6 ± 2.3 (101) 13.1 ± 0.8 (103) 206 ± 6 (79) 38.4 ± 1.9 (106)  
Male (subadult) 48.5 ± 3.0 (174) 12.7 ± 0.6 (180) 203 ± 5 (187) 38.9 ± 1.2 (188)  
Female (subadult) 46.6 ± 3.1 (114) 12.2 ± 0.7 (119) 203 ± 5 (127) 38.4 ± 1.6 (126)  

a Measures in mm, mean ± SD (n in parentheses)

b Iceland, males

c Males

d January

e Collected from gill nets, Monterey Bay, California 1999-2000

Appendix 2

Numbers of Common Murres (U. a. inornata) breeding along northeast coast of Asia.

      Pairs a UnID Sites
CHUKCHI SEA          
Ostrov Vrangelya     1,107   2
Mys Smidta     11,000   1
Mys Dezneva       64,020 12
Subtotal     6,107 64,020  
           
WESTERN BERING SEA        
Anadyrskij Zaliv       75,925 13
Mys Navarin     500,000   1
Chatyrka       68,400 3
Ostrov Karaginskij     1,600 166,570 10
      5,400   4
Ust-Kamcatsk     31,943 13,038 3
Kronockij Zaliv     5,400 3,500 4
Mys Lopatka     2,925 38,666 6
Subtotal     547,268 353,074  
           
KOMANDORSKIJE   126,231 98,310 29
           
OCHOTSKOJE MORE        
Parena     4,000 2,500 4
Palana     11,080 8,000 4
Morosecnoje     20,600   2
Giziginskaja Guba     66,640   7
Mys Tolstoi     305,902 2,000 5
Taujskaya Guba     32,600 640 2
Mys Terpenija     125,000   2
N. Kurile     17 86,972 12
S. Kurile     8,000 8,768 6
Subtotal     573,839 108,880  
           
ZALIV PETRA VELIKAGA   3,000   1
TOTAL RUSSIA     1,256,445 624,284 133

a Comparing with Irons et al. (Irons et al. 2008), assessed through NPSDP (NPSDP 2020); although website updated through 2011, most counts older.

 

Numbers of Common Murres U.a.inornata breeding on islands of Japan.

  Range of Years No. Years Current Pairsb Peak Count Trend
Moyururi Island 1959-87 14 0 115 Decrease
Yururi Island 1957-87 9 0 23 Decrease
Teteiwa Rock 1966 1 1    
Matsumaekojima Island 1965-2013 5 1 1,000 Decrease
Daikoku Island 1972 1 13    
Teuri Island 1956-2019 43 26 25,000 Decrease
Tomoshiri Island 1977 1 a few    
Rishiri Island 1965 1 10    
Rebun Todojima Island 2015-16 2 4    
TOTAL JAPAN     55    

b From Senzaki et al. (Senzaki et al. 2019)

Appendix 3

Numbers of Common Murres U.a.inornata breeding along coasts of Large Marine Ecosystems in North Pacific region.a

  Most recent survey year Individuals Years Trend Comments, and ratio used for separating Common from Thick-billed murres
Northern Bering Sea/eastern Chukchi Sea        
Cape Thompson 1960 190,000 8 Stable 49% COMU, 51% TBMU (ratio for whole ARC region, based on known COMU/TBMU counts)
Cape Lisburne 1977 (adjusted with plot data through 2013) 160,000 20 Increasing 35% COMU, 65% TBMU (BSCC)
St. Lawrence Island 1977-1997 (adjusted with plot data through 2004) 160,000 5   61% COMU, 39% TBMU (BSCC)
Bluff 1985 (adjusted with plot data through 2007) 50,000 25   56,000 COMU:560 TBMU (BSCC)
King Island 1976 50,000      
Little Diomede 1991 15,000     49% COMU, 51% TBMU (ratio for whole ARC region, based on known COMU/TBMU counts)
Cape Denbigh 1976 10,000      
Other (14 sites) 1972-1981 25,000      
Subtotal >21 sites 660,000      
           
Eastern Bering Sea        
St. George Island 1989 (updated with plot data through 2014) 270,000 14 Stable 16% COMU, 84% TBMU (BSCC)
Round Island 1994 (updated with plot data through 2014) 130,000 16 Decreasing  
Nunivak Island 1978 (updated with plot data through 1998) 120,000 4   40% COMU, 60% TBMU (ratio for whole EBS region, based on known COMU/TBMU counts)
Bird Rock 1994 100,000      
Shaiak Island 1994 100,000      
North Twin 1994 100,000      
St. Matthew Island 1977 70,000     31% COMU, 69% TBMU (BSCC)
Hall Island 1977 (updated with plot data through 2012) 60,000 6   31% COMU, 69% TBMU (BSCC)
Jagged Mountain 1994 40,000      
Pinnacle Island 1985 30,000     31% COMU, 69% TBMU (BSCC)
Hagemeister Island 1977-1994 25,000      
Cape Newenham 1973 (updated with plot data through 1997) 25,000 5    
Black Rock 1994 25,000      
High Island 1994 20,000      
South Twin 1994 20,000      
Other (21 sites) 1973-2005 80,000     Cape Pierce, stable; St Paul Island, slight decrease
Subtotal  >36 islands and headlands 1,215,000      
           
Aleutian Islands        
Kagamil Island 1982 7,000      
Agattu Island 2003 6,000 19   Unidentified murres were assigned 80% COMU, 20% TBMU (BSCC and old AMNWR report ratios).
Semisopochnoi Is 2004 3,000      
Koniuji Island 2010 1,500 9   Unidentified murres were assigned 25% COMU, 75% TBMU (BSCC)
Seguam Island 1982 1,300      
Buldir Island 1992 (adjusted with plot data through 2013) 1,200 18 Increasing Entire island count projected based on trends on index plots. Unidentified murres were assigned 1% COMU, 99% TBMU (AMNWR pop plot data).
Other (25 sites) 1976-2014 3200     Unidentified murres were primarily assigned based on generalized ratios in region or based on colony ratio information where available.
Subtotal 31 small islands/islets 23,200      
           
Gulf of Alaska          
Aghiyuk Island 1979 430,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
Chowiet Island 1979 (updated with plot data through 2014) 400,000 23 Increasing 97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio in AMNWR plot counts)
Aliksemit Island 1979 140,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
Kateekuk Island 1979 100,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
South Island 1979 80,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
Suklik Island 1979 60,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
Anowik Island 1979 40,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
Aghik Island 1979 40,000     97% COMU, 3% TBMU (ratio of plot counts on Chowiet for all Semidis)
East Amatuli Island 1997 (updated with plot data through 2018) 30,000 7    
Other AK (73 sites) 1973-2014 200,000     Puale Bay, St Lazaria, stable; Gull, Chisik/Duck, decreasing
Queen Charlotte Is 2007 6,000     Hipfner and Greenwood 2008; 2 locations
Subtotal 84 islands/islets and headlands 1,526,000      
TOTAL >172 breeding sites 3,424,200     Breeding birds
    2,396,940     Pairs b

a Compiled by H. Renner and colleagues at US Fish & Wildlife Service

b Breeding pairs derived from direct counts of adults, or by counts of individual birds present by applying correction factor of 0.7 (see Nettleship 1976a, Birkhead and Nettleship 1980, Gaston and Nettleship 1981).

Appendix 4

Numbers of Common Murres U. a. californica breeding along coast of California Current.

      Max. Number Most Recent    
Coastal locations Years Locations a Survey Years Estimate b Trend Source
Washington 1991-2006 Tatoosh 16 5,708 Dec-Increase Parrish and Zador 2003, Hamel et al. 2008; Parrish, pers. comm.
  1996-2015 White-Bodeltehs 12 16,860 Increase Thomas and Lyons 2017
  1996-2015 Carroll-Jagged 12 2 Decrease Thomas and Lyons 2017
  1996-2015 Quillayute Needles 12 2,979 Decrease Thomas and Lyons 2017
  1996-2015 Other No. Wash locations 12 0 Decrease Thomas and Lyons 2017
  1996-2015 Split-Willoughby 12 0 Decrease Thomas and Lyons 2017
  1996-2015 Point Grenville 12 331 Decrease Thomas and Lyons 2017
Subtotal   Sites 24   25,880    
             
Oregon 1988-2009 Tillamook Head Complex to Three Arches South 21 244,314 Decrease Naughton et al. 2007a, NPSDP 2020
  1988-2009 Colony 243-013 to Sea Lion Caves Headlands 21 86,903 Increase Naughton et al. 2007a, NPSDP 2020
  1988-2009 Chiefs Island to Face Rock 21 83,328 Increase Naughton et al. 2007a, NPSDP 2020
  1988-2009 Tower Rock to Goat Island 21 214,163 Stable Naughton et al. 2007a, NPSDP 2020
Subtotal   Sites 76    628,708    
             
N. California 1989-2014 Prince-Castle-False Klamath 11 302,656 Increase Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 White(DN)-Redding 20 266 Increase Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 White (HU) to Pilot 7 175,063 Increase Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 False Cape to High Tip 9 68,739 Stable Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 Soldier Frank to Vizcaino 23 34,531 Increase Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 Goat 13 3,542 Increase Barton et al. 2017
  1989-2014 White (ME) 7 1,246 Increase Barton et al. 2017
Subtotal   Sites 19        
             
Central California 2014 Fish-Gualala-Gull (ME, SO) 5 11,887   P.J. Capitolo, G.J. McChesney, pers. comm.
  1972-2015 S. Farallon Island (SF) 43 233,219 Increase Warzybok et al. 2018
  2015 N. Farallon Island (SF) 30 140,000 Increase Warzybok et al. 2018
  2015 Gulf of Farallones Mainland (3) 30 85,190 Stable Warzybok et al. 2018
  2018 Castle-Hurricane (MO) 37 4,914 Increase Bednar et al. 2020
Subtotal   Sites 10   463,323    
             
Southern California 2011 Prince I. 1 209 Increase National Park Service 2011
Subtotal   Sites 1        
Total   Sites 130   2,833,959 breeding  birds
        1,416,980 pairs  

a Sites are locations identified in each respective source, and often represent combination of closely spaced locations.

b To derive pairs, Washington (except Tatoosh), and California raw counts corrected by 1.67 (Carter et al. 2001); central California corrected by Warzybok et al. (Warzybok et al. 2018), factor differing by year.

Appendix 5

Numbers of Common Murres U. a. aalge breeding along coasts of western North Atlantic.a

Region/Location Coordinates Year Pairsb Trend Source
Labrador          
   Pyramid Is. 56o26’N 60 o32’W 2009 0 Decrease P. MacDonald, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   The Barbican 56o22’N 60o39’W 2009 0 Decrease P. MacDonald, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   The Castle 56o21’N 60o40’W 2009 47 Decrease P. MacDonald, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Kidlit Is. 56o13’N 60o28’W 2009 40 Decrease P. MacDonald, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Nunaksuk I. 56o03’N 60o28’W 1978 200 ? Nettleship 1980
   Quakers Hat 54o44’N 57o20’W 1978 650 ? Nettleship 1980
   Puffin Is. 54o25’N 57o23’W 2002 38 New Robertson and Elliott 2002
   The Doughboy 54o25’N 57o21’W 2002 261 New Robertson and Elliott 2002
   Twin I. East 54o24’N 57o31’W 2010 1 New S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Twin I. West 54o23’N 57o32’W 2010 1 New S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   North Green I. 54o24’N 57o19’W 2010 25 Decrease S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Herring Is. 54o20’N 57o06’W 2010 2,033 Decrease S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Outer Gannet I. 54o00’N 56o32’W 2015 1,118 Decrease R. Wells, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Gannet Is. (=Gannet Clusters) 53o56’N 56o32’W 2015 17,531 Decrease R. Wells, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Bird Is. 53o44’N 56o15’W 1978 3,150 ? Lock et al. 1994
Subtotal Sites 15   25,095    
           
Newfoundland          
   Western Puffin I. 49o49’N 54o08’W 2012 15 New W. Montevecchi, MUN unpubl.
   Funk I. 49o46’N 53o11’W 2009 470,000 Stable Wilhelm et al. 2015
   South Cabot I. 49o10’N 53o22’W 2009 10,000 Increase S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Gull I. (Bonavista) 48o43’N 53o06’W 2019 340 New P. Ryan, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   North Bird I. (Elliston) 48o38’N 53o09’W 2019 25 New S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Baccalieu I. 48o07’N 52o48’W 2012 1,150 Stable S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Gull I. 47o16’N 52o46’W 2009 3,496 Increase S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Green I. 47o14’N 52o47’W 2007 250,000 Decrease S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Great I. 47o11’N 52o49’W 2009 4,656 Decrease S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   The Drook 46o39’N 53o14’W 2009 122 Stable H. Hogan, Wildlife-Gov. NL unpubl.
   Cape Pine Head 46o38’N 53o31’W 2005 7 Stable G. Robertson, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Western Head 46o39’N 53o38’W 1985 27 ? Cairns et al. 1989
   Cape St. Mary’s 46o50’N 54o12’W 2007 15,484 Increase S. Wilhelm, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
Subtotal Sites 13   755,322    
           
Gulf of  St. Lawrence (Québec)          
   Bradore Bay 51o25’N 57o14’W 2015 1,519 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Gros Mecatina 50o43’N 58o53’W 2015 24 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   St. Mary Is. 50o18’N 59o39’W 2015 14,575 Stable J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Boat Is.(=Perroquet Is.) 50o17’N 59o45’W 2015 5,529 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Mariannes Is. 50o15’N 59o50’W 1986 210 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Kipu I. 50o15’N 59o54’W 1986 12 ? G. Chapdelaine, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Etamamiou I. 50o15’N 59o58’W 1995 49 ? G. Chapdelaine & J.-F. Rail, CWS unpubl.
   Mistassini Is. 50o13’N 59o57’W 2015 135 Decrease J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Triplets Is. 50o14’N 59o59’W 1995 7 ? G. Chapdelaine & J.-F. Rail, CWS  unpubl.
   Cap Whittle Is. 50o11’N 60o08’W 1995 18 ? G. Chapdelaine & J.-F. Rail, CWS  unpubl.
   Ile du 37 50o10’N 60o11’W 2015 1 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Iles aux Oeufs 50o10’N 60o06’W 2015 560 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Wolf Bay 50 o13’N 60o13’W 2015 275 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Betchouane 50o12’N 63o12’W 2015 507 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Ile aux Perroquets 50o13’N 64o12’W 2016 24 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Corrossol I. 50o05’N 66o23’W 2015 1,329 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Laval I. 48o45’N 69o02’W 2016 3 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Bicquette I. 48o25’N 68o53’W 2016 2 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Le Petit Pot 47o53’N 69o41’W 2016 2,566 Increase Rail 2018
   Le Gros Pot 47o52’N 69o41’W 2016 1,023 Increase Rail 2018
   Le Gros Pèlerin 47o45’N 69o42’W 2016 8 ? Rail 2018
   Le Long Pèlerin 47o43’N 69o44’W 2016 13 Increase Rail 2018
   Le Petit Pèlerin 47o42’N 69o45’W 2016 132 Increase Rail 2018
   Forillon Peninsula 48o48’N 64o13’W 2018 3,738 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Cap Barré 48o32’N 64o15’W 2018 1 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Les Trois Soeurs 48o32’N 64o13’W 2018 1 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Percé Rock 48o31’N 64o12’W 2018 372 Stable J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Cap Blanc 48o30’N 64o13’W 2018 1 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Bonaventure I. 48o30’N 64o10’W 2018 34,915 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Cap d’Espoir 48o26’N 64o19’W 2018 260 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Grande-Rivière 48o25’N 64o24’W 2018 15 New J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Shigawake 48o12’N 64o50’W 2018 1 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Bird Rocks 47o50’N 61o09’W 2017 15,728 Increase J.-F., CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Brion I. 47o47’N 61o29’W 2017 9,745 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Ȋle aux Goélands 47o22’N 61o58’W 2017 472 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Ȋle d’Entrée 47o17’N 61o42’W 2017 498 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Le Corps Mort 47o16’N 62o12’W 2017 234 Increase J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Le Cap du Sud-Ouest 47o13’N 62o00’W 2017 1 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
   Le Cap du Sud 47o13’N 61o57’W 2017 1 ? J.-F. Rail, CWS-ECCC unpubl.
Subtotal Sites 39   94,504    
           
Bay of Fundy / Gulf of Maine          
   Yellow Murr Ledge, NB 44o31’N 66o52’W 2001 212 Increase Ronconi and Wong 2003
   Machias Seal I., NB 44o30’N 67o06’W 2019 277 Increase Gulf of Maine Seabird Working Group (GOMSWG) 2020
   Matinicus Rock, ME 43o47’N 68o51’W 2019 6 Increase Gulf of Maine Seabird Working Group (GOMSWG) 2020
Subtotal Sites 3   495    
           
Total Sites 70   875, 315 pairs    

a Compiled by D.N. Nettleship.

b Breeding pairs derived by applying correction factor of 0.7 or 0.76 to counts of murre individuals present (see Nettleship 1976a, Birkhead and Nettleship 1980).

Appendix 6

Numbers of Common Murres breeding along coasts of northeastern Atlantic region.

Region/Site Sites Year(s) Pairs a Trend Source
U. a. aalge          
Davis Strait 6 1996 1,500-2,000i Declining Boertmann et al. 1996
GREENLAND SEA          
Iceland 71 2006-08 698,053 Declining Garðarsson et al. 2019
          See Appendix 7 for details
           
U. a. hyperborea          
NORWEGIAN SEA          
Jan Mayen 2 1983 <1,000 Declining SEAPOP b, van Franeker et al. 1998
Norway, mainland 19 2020 46,000 Declining SEAPOP b; Bakken et al. 2006
          See Appendix 8 for details
BARENTS SEA          
Spitsbergen 22 1987-97 35,000? Declining Strøm in Bakken et al. 2006
Bjørnøya 1 2019 156,000 Increasing SEAPOP b; Fauchald pers.comm.
Finland 1 1975-80 50 Increasing? refs. in Nettleship and Evans 1985
KARA SEA          
Murmansk Coast 10 2000-08 7,800-8,400 Declining Strøm et al. 2009
Novaya Zemlya 7-9 2000-08 750 Declining Strøm et al. 2009
           
U. a. intermedia          
BALTIC SEA          
Helgoland, Germany 1 1986 2,500 Increasing Vauk et al. 1989
Sweden 5 1998 8,000-12,000 Increasing Olsson et al. 2000
Denmark 1 1998 2,000-3,000 Increasing Olsson et al. 2000
           
U. a. spiloptera          
NORWEGIAN SEA          
Faeroe Islands 25 1997-99 100,000 Declining? Olsen in Bakken et al. 2006
           
U. a. albionis          
NORTH/IRISH SEA          
Britain & Ireland 642 1998-2002 1,303,456   JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) 2019
          See Appendix 9 for details
BAY OF BISQUE          
Brittany, France 5 2019 567-638 Stable Cadiou et al. 2020
Spain & Portugal 4 1981-82 100 Declining Bárcena et al. 1984

a Count value with ‘i’ indicates individual birds, not pairs.

b Seabird Population Mangement and Petroleum Operations.

Appendix 7

Numbers of Common Murres breeding in Iceland.a

Region/Location Sites Year(s) Pairs Range
Ingólfshöfoi 1 2007 5,884 5,548-6,220
Mydrdalur 7 2007 3,210 3,026-3,393
Vestmannaeviar 24 2006 33,016 31,129-34,902
KrýsuvÍkurberg 1 2007 8,785 3,863-14,243
Eldey 1 2006 986 930-1,042
Hafnaberg 1 2006 419 395-443
Snæfellsnes 7 2005 1,093 1,031-1,156
Látrabjarg 1 2006-2007 225,912 144,808-315,283
Bjarnarnúpur 1 2007 1,357 991-1,759
Ritur 1 2007 11,789 2,833-21,749
HælavÍkur-og Hornbjarg 2 2007 268,275 85,748-471,067
Drangey og Kerling 2 2007 7,099 6,693-7,505
Grímsey 1 2007 67,293 32,739-105,569
Raudinúpur 3 2008 2,040 1,924-2,157
Skoruvik 1 2007 27,343 16,224-39,621
Langanes N 1 2006-2008 1,673 1,577-1,768
Langanes Fontur 1 2006 14,845 13,997-15,693
Hafnarbjarg Borgarfirdi eystra 1 2008 150 -
Bardsnes Hesturd 1 2008 <1,100 -
Gerpir 1 2008 <600 -
Skrúdur 2 2008 11,483 10,827-12,140
Papey 6 2008 3,701 3,490-3,913
         
Total 67 2005-2008 698,053 367,773-1,059,623

a From Gardarsson et al. (Garðarsson et al. 2019).

Appendix 8

Numbers of Common Murres breeding in mainland Norway.a

Region/Location Coordinates Year Pairs  Trend
Kjørholmane 58o53’N 05o26’E 2020 180 ?
Spannholmane 59o17’N 04o51’E 2018 10 Stable
Veststeinen 61o54’N 04o52’E 2020 85 Increasing
Buholmen 62o10’N 05o05’E 2014 15 ?
Einevarden 62o00’N 04o59’E 2020 240 Increasing
Runde 62o24’N 05o38’E 2020 1,000 Declining
Sklinna 65o13’N 10o58’E 2020 1,297 ?
Røst 67o30’N 12o00’E 2008 600 Declining
Værøy 67o45’N 12o46’E 2008 309 Declining
Moskenes 68o46’N 14o26’E 2008 101 Declining
Anda 69o04’N 15o10’E 2017 112 ?
Sør-Fugløy 70o06’N 18o30’E 2008 100 Declining
Nord-Fugløy 70o16’N 20o14’E 2008 500 Declining
Loppa 70o21’N 21o25’E 2016 250 Declining
Lille Kamøy 70o52’N 23o04’E 2020 100 ?
Hjelmsøya 71o06’N 24o44’E 2019 15,000 Declining
Gjesværstappan 71o08’N 25o21’E 2013 560 Declining
Syltefjordstauran 70o35’N 30o18’E 2007 170 Declining
Hornøya & Reinøya 70o23’N 31o09’E 2016 25,700 Increasing
         
Total 19 2007-2020 46,000  

a From SEAPOP (Anker-Nilssen et al. 2020), Bakken et al. (Bakken et al. 2006), P. Fauchald unpublished

Appendix 9

Number of Common Murres breeding in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales

  Administrative Area/County Sites Year(s)a Countb Corrected No. Birdsc
Ireland Clare 14 1999-2002 24,962 41,687
  Cork 8 1999-2001 3,763 6,284
  Donegal 17 1999 7,656 12,786
  Dublin 13 1999 63,837 106,608
  Galway 6 1999 3,444 5,751
  Kerry 15 1999-2002 7,406 12,368
  Mayo 19 1999-2000 3,830 6,396
  Waterford 5 1999 1,055 1,762
  Wexford 1 2000 21,436 35,798
  Wicklow 4 1999 992 1,657
  Antrim 44 1999-2002 98,546 164,572
  Subtotal 146     395,669
           
England Cornwall 29 1999-2000 1,424 2,378
  Cumbria 2 1999 6,450 10,772
  Devon 13 1999-2001 3,926 6,556
  Dorset 7 1999-2000 954 1,593
  Humberside 27 2000 46,625 77,864
  North Yorkshire 4 2000-2002 530 885
  Northumberland (Farne Islands) 12 2000 31,542 52,675
  Subtotal 94     152,723
  Channel Islands 4 2000 476 795
  Isle of Man 6 1999 4,566 7,625
  Isle of Wight 1 2001 337 563
  Isles of Scilly 4 1999 196 327
  Subtotal 11     8,515
           
Scotland Angus 4 2000 1,002 1,673
  Argyll and Bute 53 1999-2000 43,692 72,966
  Banff and Buchan 46 2001 73,970 123,530
  Berwickshire 19 1998-2000 44,636 74,542
  East Coast Caithness 54 1999 195,295 326,143
  North Coast Caithness 9 2000 30,959 51,702
  City of Aberdeen 2 1999 395 660
  East Lothian 4 1999 8,266 13,804
  Gordon 6 2001 3,345 5,586
  Kincardine and Deeside 34 1999-2000 72,179 120,539
  Kirkcaldy 1 1999 48 80
  Kyle and Carrick 1 2001 9,415 15,723
  Lochaber 17 1999-2001 8,692 14,516
  North East Fife 1 2001 28,103 46,932
  Orkney 101 1999-2002 181,026 302,313
  East Coast Ross and Cromarty 5 1999 1,944 3,246
  Shetland 70 1999-2001 172,681 288,377
  Skye and Lochalsh 14 2000-2001 6,495 10,847
  Stewartry 2 1998-2000 250 418
  North-West Coast Sutherland 26 1998-2000 162,193 270,862
  Western Isles 89 1998-2002 120,594 201,392
  Wigtown 8 2000-2002 3,931 6,565
  Subtotal 566     1,952,415
           
Wales Dyfed 55 1999-2001 35,912 59,973
  Gwynedd 20 1999-2002 21,859 36,505
  West Glamorgan 1 2001 190 317
  Subtotal 76     96,795
           
TOTAL         2,606,117
        pairs 1,303,059

a Survey in 1998-2002

b Data from Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) 2019)

c Count corrected by 1.67 (see JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) 2019)

Appendix 10

Diet of Common Murres in Chukchi andd Bering seas, and Gulf of Alaska.

Region Chuckchi Sea Bering Strait Eastern Bering Sea Aleutian Islands Gulf of Alaska
  Cape Lisburne Cape Thompson St. Lawrence Bluff St. Matthew St. Paul St. George Aiktak I. Bogoslof I. Agattu I. Buldir I. Chisik I. Kodiak I. Barrens I. Gull I. Chowiet

Triangle I., British Columbia

Teuri I., Japan
  1977–1998 1976–1995 1981 1978–2002 1982-1996 1976–2010 1975–2008 1976–2010 1977–2005 1983–1998 1991–2000 1988–1989 1988–1989 1995–1999  1977–1978 1995–2012 1995–1998 1995–1999 1998–2006 2003–2006 2011–2014
  adulta adulta adultb adultd,g adultd,g chickc,g adultc,g chickc,g adultg adultg adultg adulti adulti adulte,g adultf winter chickg adultg chickg chickg chickh chickj
Fish                                          
Pollock         42 49 78 10 49 64 35 5 7 20 2   43 8 2    
Polar/Saffron cod 39 56 35 45                                  
Sculpins <1 5 16                       <1            
Sandlance 31 17 37 36   11   11 2 18 8 85 51 49 <1 5 20 38 15 39 41
Herring                               4   12     7
Capelin 5 12 4 1 <1 9   9           13 <1 83 29 30 60    
Pleuronectids 6     <1                   4              
Cottids 9 8   1 <1       3 6                     12
Rockfish                             <1         36  
Other fish 1 3 8 15 25 27 10 57 14 9 4     8 2 8   22 14 25 40
Invertebrates 8 1   1 32   6   27 1 36     5     8        
Shrimp                             95            
Amphipods                                          
Euphausiids                         7                
Cephalopods           2 5 13 3   14 10 35 <1              

Percent of diet by number, except for references f and i (percent biomass)

a Springer et al. 1984

b Springer et al. 1987

c Hunt et al. 1981b

d Springer et al. 1986

e Sanger et al. 1978

f Sanger 1987b

g Drummond 2016

h Hipfner and Greenwood 2008

i Springer et al. 1996

j Ministry of Environment 2012–2015

Appendix 11

Diet of Common Murres in California Current, during breeding (April-August) and non-breeding (September-March), and El Niño versus La Niña.

Region Central California Northern California Oregon Washington
  Monterey Bay Summer/winter, Ad 1974-1987a Monterey Bay Summer/winter, Ad 1999-2000j Gulf of Farallones Summer/Winter, Adult 1985-1988b SE Farallon I. El Niño/La Niña, Chick 1979-1983, 2009-2015h,i SE Farallon I. Chick 1993-2008h,j Castle Rock Chick 2007-2017e Coos Bay Summer/Winter, Ad 1979-1982c Yaquina Head Chick 2007-2017f Newport Summer/Winter, Ad 1972-1982c,d Columbia River Summer 1982c,e Tatoosh I. Chick 1996-2009g
Fish                      
  Sandlance           2 5/18 15 2/2 1 9
  Herring -/4   -/3     1 2/13 15 16/23 2 38
  Embiotocidae     -/2       <1/3   <1/5    
  Anchovy 21/35 22/47 9/25 62/10 65 3 3/24   2/16 47  
  Tom cod           2 18/-   10/21 30  
  Hake -/4 1/- 5/-                
  Greenling             <1/-   7/-    
  Smelt 2/-   2/8 8/2 10 59 12/29 50 6/- 10 40
  Pleuronectidae -/11 2/<1 4/- 4/1   1 5/<1 4 <1/–    
  Salmonidae       1/-   5 2/1   11/3 2 2
  Rockfish 31/30 23/3 46/7 19/86 15 23 19/4 5 2/8 2 4
Invertebrates                      
  Euphausiid     26/23       12/-   17/-    
  Market squid 35/19 45/23 3/10 3/1   2 14/-   8/6 <1  
  Octopus   <1/5 -/7                
Other/unid. Fish 11/8 6/18 5/10   10 2 7/- 10 22/6 2 7

Percent of diet by number

a Baltz and Morejohn 1977; Croll 1988, Croll 1990b

b Ainley et al. 1996b

c Matthews 1983a

d Scott 1973a, Scott 1990b

e Schneider 2018

f Suryan 2017

g Schrimpf et al. 2012

h Ainley et al. 2018

i Warzybok et al. 2018

j Nevins 2004

Appendix 12

Diet of Common Murre in Northeast Atlantic region, during breeding and winter.

Region  Barents Sea Baltic Sea North Sea
Hornøya 1983 chicka Hornøya 1990-1991 chickb Hornøya 1983-1994 chickc Kharlov 1985-1994 chickd Bjørnøya 1988-1995 chickb Hjelmsøy 1983 chickc Finnmark coast 1986 winterc Troms coast 1985 winterc Stora Karlsö 1975 chicke Stora Karlsö 1990-1996 adultf Faire I. 1986-1988 chickg Farne Is. 1961-1963 chickg Helgoland 1990-1993 chickg I. of May 1982-1984 chickh I. of May 1981-2003 chicki I. of May 2004 chicki Skomer I. 1973-2008 chickj Skomer I. 2009-2017 chickj
Fish                                    
  Sandlance 40 46 31 63 <1       2 1 98 49 36 84 59 2 8 15
  Capelin 60 45 60 30 91 99 100 mostly                    
  Clupied                                 80 65
  Herring   9 5 7         5   1 42 64 1        
  Spratt                 92 93       14 39 98    
  Gadid                                 1 6
  Polar cod                   6                
Squid         6                          
Other     4   2           <1 4   <1     11 14

Percent diet composition by number

a Furness and Barrett 1985

b Barrett et al. 1997

c Vader et al. 1990

d Barrett; Krasnov 1996

e Hedgren 1976

f Lyngs and Durinck 1998

g Hunt and Furness 1996

h Harris and Wanless 1986b

i Wanless et al. 2005

j Riordan and Birkhead 2018

Recommended Citation

Ainley, D. G., D. N. Nettleship, and A. E. Storey (2021). Common Murre (Uria aalge), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman, P. G. Rodewald, and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.commur.02