Crimson-collared Tanager Ramphocelus sanguinolentus
Version: 2.0 — Published May 7, 2020
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Since then, sanguinolentus variously has been been classified in Ramphocelus (e.g., 20, 21, 22, 23), or in Phlogothraupis (e.g., 3, 24), based on differences in bill shape and the degree of sexual dimorphism between sanguinolentus and other species of Ramphocelus (although see the comments in 20: page 310, footnote 2), and also on differences in plumage sequence, voice, social systems, and eggs (9). See also Related Species.
Two subspecies are generally recognized in Crimson-collared Tanager, though some have considered it monotypic (25); the subspecies differ only in size, which probably varies clinally rather than discretely.
Ramphocelus sanguinolentus sanguinolentus
Southeastern Mexico (from Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Quintana Roo) south through Belize to Honduras.
Ramphocelus sanguinolentus apricus
Caribbean slope of eastern Honduras south to northwestern and central Panama, locally on Pacific slope in northern Costa Rica.
Similar to nominate sanguinolentus, but smaller (26).
The Crimson-collared Tanager is part of the very large and diverse tanager family (Thraupidae), which itself is part of the extremely diverse radiation of songbirds in the New World with nine-primaries (27, 28, 29, 30). Within this large and diverse group, phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data has shown that Crimson-collared Tanager appears to be sister to the rest of the members of Ramphocelus (27, 29 ,30). This pattern of relationships is compatible with either recognizing a monospecific Phlogothraupis or with including sanguinolentus in Ramphocelus, but modern authorities continue to prefer retaining sanguinolentus in Ramphocelus (31).