SPECIES

Malabar Gray Hornbill Ocyceros griseus

Divya Mudappa and T. R. Shankar Raman
Version: 2.0 — Published July 9, 2020

Tables and Appendices

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Table 1

Morphometric measurements of Malabar Gray Hornbill from various sources (mean and number of individuals given within parentheses, where available).

Variable (mm) Female Male Adult Source
Wing length 185-201 (mean = 195, n = 7) 205-220 (mean = 212, n = 14)   Kemp 1995
185-195 (n = 9) 205-218 (n = 3)   Ali and Ripley 1983
Bill length 72-87 (mean = 81, n = 6) 97-110 (mean = 104, n = 11)   Kemp 1995
    100-110 Ali and Ripley 1983
Bill depth     40 Ali and Ripley 1983
Gape width     35.7 (3) Gopal et al. 2020
Tarsus length 36-40 (mean = 38, n = 6) 39-42 (mean = 40, n = 7)   Kemp 1995
    44-45 Ali and Ripley 1983
Tail length 188-205 (mean = 196, n = 6) 208-235 (mean = 222, n = 9)   Kemp 1995
    219-235 Ali and Ripley 1983

Table 2

Results of State-wise Surveys of Malabar Gray Hornbill.

State Number of localities surveyed Number of localities where the species occurred Year (Source) Key protected forest reserves where the species occurred
Kerala    24 18 2004 (A) Aralam WLS, Periyar TR, Vazhachal RF, Thattekad WLS, Chimmony WLS, Neyyar WLS, Peppara WLS, Nelliampathy Hills
14 11 2004-5 (B)
8 7 2008-9 (C)
32 26 1990-2008 (D)
Tamil Nadu   9 4 2004 (A) Anamalai TR, Valparai Plateau, Kalakad-Mundanthurai TR, Meghamalai WLS, Gudalur RF
2 2 2004-5 (B)
9 8 2008-9 (C)
Karnataka   14 9 2004 (A) Anshi WLS, Dandeli WLS, Mookambika WLS, Someshwara WLS, Bhadra WLS, Kudremukh NP, Makut RF, Sharavathi Valley WLS
13 13 2004-5 (B)
11 7 2008-9 (C)
Goa   5 4 2004 (A) Bondla WLS, Cotigao WLS, Mhadei WLS, Mollem NP
5 5 2004-5 (B)
8 7 2008-9 (C)
Maharashtra  12 3 2004-5 (B) Amboli RF, Radhanagari WLS, Phansad WLS, Lonavala RF, Matheran RF
12 8 2008-9 (C)

Legend: WLS = Wildlife Sanctuary, TR = Tiger Reserve, RF = Reserve Forest, NP = National Park.

Sources: A = Balasubramanian et al. 2004 , Balasubramanian et al. 2007, B = Mudappa and Raman 2009, C = Abraham 2016, D = Sashikumar et al. 2011.

Table 3

Fruits delivered at nests or noted in nest middens in a tropical wet evergreen forest in the Anamalai Hills during the breeding season (February to May) (1).

Name in original publication Present name Family
Ficus spp. Ficus spp. Moraceae
Mimusops elengi Mimusops elengi Sapotaceae
Bridelia sp. Bridelia sp. Phyllanthaceae
Elaeagnus conferta Elaeagnus conferta Elaeagnaceae
Linociera intermedia Chionanthus ramiflorus Oleaceae
Syzygium spp. Syzygium spp. Myrtaceae
Filicium decipiens Filicium decipiens Sapindaceae
Zizyphus nummularia Ziziphus nummularia Rhamnaceae
Glycosmis pentaphylla Glycosmis pentaphylla Rutaceae
Uvaria sp. Uvaria sp. Annonaceae
Neolitsea sp. Neolitsea spp. Lauraceae
Cinnamomum sp. Cinnamomum spp. Lauraceae
Persea macrantha Persea macrantha Lauraceae
Litsea sp. Litsea spp. Lauraceae
Beilschmiedia sp. Beilschmiedia spp. Lauraceae
Myristica dactyloides Myristica dactyloides Myristicaceae
Knema attenuata Knema attenuata Myristicaceae
Polyalthia sp. Polyalthia spp. Annonaceae
Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos nux-vomica Loganiaceae

1 - Mudappa 2000

Table 4

Fruits consumed during the breeding and non-breeding seasons in a tropical semi-evergreen forest in the Nilgiris (1,2).

Name as in original publication (Present name, if different ) Family Breeding season Non-breeding season
Actinodaphne malabarica Lauraceae X X
Aphanamixis polystachya Meliaceae X X
Casearia ovata Salicaceae X X
Cinnamomum verum Lauraceae X X
Coffee arabica Rubiaceae X  
Diospyros sp. 1 Ebenaceae X  
Ficus drupacea Moraceae X X
Ficus tsjahela Moraceae   X
Ficus virens Moraceae X X
Flacourtia montana Salicaceae X  
Glochidion velutinum (Glochidion heyneanum) Phyllanthaceae X X
Gmelina arborea Lamiaceae X  
Gnetum ula Gnetaceae   X
Grewia tiliifolia Malvaceae X X
Litsea stocksii Lauraceae X X
Melia dubia (Melia azederach) Meliaceae X  
Meliosma simplicifolia Sabiaceae X  
Olea dioica Oleaceae X  
Olea paniculata Oleaceae X  
Persea macrantha Lauraceae X X
Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae X X
Tabernaemontana heyneana (T. alternifolia) Apocynaceae   X
Toddalia asiatica  Rutaceae   X
Trichilia connaroides (Heynea trijuga) Meliaceae   X
Xylosma latifolium Salicaceae X  
Angali (unidentified)   X  
Thuvalai (unidentified)   X  

1 - Maheswaran 2002
2 - Balasubramanian et al. 2007

Table 5

Nest tree characteristics of Malabar Gray Hornbill.

Location and habitat Girth at breast height (cm) Tree height (m) Number of nests (N) Source
Anamalai Hills, Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest 236.6 (SE=16.7) 27.7 (SE=4.4) 27 Mudappa and Kannan 1997
Anamalai Hills, Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest 278.1 (range, 132 ‒ 1000) 26.8 (range, 13 ‒ 47) 59 P. Pawar, D. Mudappa, T. R. S. Raman, unpublished data
Anamalai and Nelliampathy Hills 377 19 112 Abraham 2016
Mudumalai, Tropical Semi-evergreen Forest 283 (range, 160 ‒727) 36 (range, 22 ‒ 45) 40 Maheswaran and Balasubramanian 2003

Table 6

Nest cavity parameters in the Western Ghats.

Variable Mean SE N Source
Nest height (m)   14.9 0.8 59 1
16 - 120 3
14 0.3 40 4
Girth at nest height (cm)  133 2.1 26 2
177 8 40 4
Nest entrance height (cm)  8.4 0.3 27 2
15 0.2 40 4
Nest entrance width (cm)  8.3 0.3 27 2
13.7 0.3 40 4
Nest inner depth (cm)  36 - 1 2
34 1.3 40 4

Source: 1 = Anamalai Hills (P. Y. Pawar, D. Mudappa, and T. R. S. Raman, unpublished data; 2 = Anamalai Hills (Mudappa and Kannan 1997 ); 3 = Anamalai Hills (Abraham 2016), 4 = Mudumalai (Maheswaran and Balasubramanian 2003)

Table 7

Line transect density estimates of Malabar Gray Hornbill populations along the Western Ghats.

Location Mean density (birds/km²) 95% confidence interval (birds/km²) Year(s) Source
Anshi – Dandeli – Goa landscape 9.4 6.1-14.4 2004-2005 1
Reserved Forests (Anamalai-Parambikulam landscape) 67.4 40.4-94.4
Wildlife reserves (overall Anamalai-Parambikulam landscape) 28.5 23.9-33.1
Anaigundi Shola (mid-elevation wildlife reserve 700-1,000 m) 42.7 -
Karian Shola (mid-elevation wildlife reserve 700-1,000 m) 48.7 -
Varagaliar–Manamboli–Sheikalmudi complex (mid-elevation wildlife reserve 700-1,000 m) 40.8 -
Valparai Plateau rainforest fragments in plantation landscape 26 (21.5-33.5) 18.6-33.4
Nelliampathy Reserve Forest 38.9 28.6-52.7 Nov 2008-Feb 2013 2
Vazhachal Reserve Forest 33.9 26.1-44.1
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve 32.3 25.4-41.2
Anamalai Tiger Reserve 19.7 13.7-28.1
Anamalai Tiger Reserve 17.5 12.8-23.9 2017-2018 3
Valparai Plateau rainforest fragments and plantations 11.7 7.1-19.3 2017-2018 3

Sources: 1 = Mudappa and Raman 2009; 2 Abraham 2016; and 3 = P. Y. Pawar, D. Mudappa, and T. R. S. Raman (unpublished ms).

Recommended Citation

Mudappa, D. and T. R. S. Raman (2020). Malabar Gray Hornbill (Ocyceros griseus), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.maghor2.02