Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis Scientific name definitions

Sylvia L. Halkin, Daniel P. Shustack, M. Susan DeVries, Jodie M. Jawor, and Susan U. Linville
Version: 2.0 — Published February 12, 2021


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We thank Peter Pyle for updating information in the Appearance section, David Mindell for updating the Systematics section, and Andrew Spencer for helpful suggestions for the organization and overview of the Sounds section. We thank Rindy Anderson, Randall Breitwisch, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic for providing unpublished data on morphological measures, ornamental plumage and behavior, and visual acuity (respectively). Thanks to Roderick Suthers, Franz Goller, and David Enstrom for reviewing our summaries of their work on Northern Cardinal vocalizations and for providing valuable citations. Martha Fischer and staff at the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology helped to identify and edit sound clips and prepare sound spectrograms of Northern Cardinal vocalizations we wished to include. We thank Danny Bystrak for providing analyses of cardinal banding and re-encounter data on file at the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory, and for reviewing our interpretations of those data. Bob Levy generously contributed photos of Northern Cardinals from his decades of documentation in Central Park, New York. We thank Marm Kilpatrick, Nicholas Komar, Goudarz Molaei, and Phil Pellitteri for help in interpreting data on insect-borne diseases, Nicholas Komar for sharing unpublished data, and Keith Pardieck and John Sauer for help with BBS data. We thank David Spector for useful thoughts and suggestions on several sections of the account, and Daniel Halkin and Theodore Halkin for additional helpful ideas and advice. We thank Kimberly Farrington for interlibrary loan assistance at Central Connecticut State University. Finally, we thank Brooke Keeney, Paul Rodewald, and the BOW editing team for their guidance and varied and vital editorial assistance.

Acknowledgments for the original version of the account (1999) are listed here. We remain grateful for the contributions of those acknowledged; their work on the original version has also played a significant role in the revised account.

Recommended Citation

Halkin, S. L., D. P. Shustack, M. S. DeVries, J. M. Jawor, and S. U. Linville (2021). Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.norcar.02