Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis Scientific name definitions

Sylvia L. Halkin, Daniel P. Shustack, M. Susan DeVries, Jodie M. Jawor, and Susan U. Linville
Version: 2.0 — Published February 12, 2021


Welcome to Birds of the World!

You are currently viewing one of the free accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of the World. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this account.

For complete access to all accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign in

Literature Cited

1. Lemon, R. E., and D. M. Scott (1966). On the development of song in young Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 191–197.

2. Lemon, R. E. (1966). Geographic variation in the song of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 413–428.

3. Lemon, R. E. (1967). The response of Cardinals to songs of different dialects. Animal Behaviour 15: 538–545.

4. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The displays and call notes of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46: 141–151.

5. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The relation between organization and function of song in Cardinals. Behaviour 32: 158–178.

6. Lemon, R. E., and C. Chatfield (1971). Organization of song in Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 19: 1–17.

7. Lemon, R. E. (1975). How birds develop song dialects. Condor 77: 385–406.

8. Lemon, R. E. (1975). Repetitions and pattern switches in songs of Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 38: 294–303.

9. Ritchison, G. (1986). The singing behavior of female northern cardinals. Condor 88: 156–159.

10. Ritchison, G. (1988). Song repertoires and the singing behavior of male Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 100: 583–603.

11. McElroy, D. B., and G. Ritchison (1996). Effect of mate removal on singing behavior and movement patterns of female Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 108: 550–555.

12. Halkin, S. L. (1997). Nest-vicinity song exchanges may coordinate biparental care of Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 54: 189–198.

13. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 100: 504–511.

14. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). Can a sexually dimorphic learned birdsong be used for male-female recognition? Behaviour 135: 833–844.

15. Jawor, J. M., N. Gray, S. M. Beall, and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behaviour 67(5): 875–882.

16. Jawor, J. M., and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments in male Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, as indicators of condition. Ethology 110(2): 113–126.

17. Vondrasek, J. R. (2006). Social factors affect the singing rates of female Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Avian Biology 37(1): 52–57.

18. Narango, D. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2016). Urban-associated drivers of song variation along a rural-urban gradient. Behavioral Ecology 27(2): 608–616.

19. Winters, C. P., and J. M. Jawor (2017). Melanin ornament brightness and aggression at the nest in female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Auk 134: 128–136.

20. Narango, D. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2018). Signal information of bird song changes in human-dominated landscapes. Urban Ecosystems 21(1): 41–50.

21. Yamaguchi, A. (1996). Female bird song: Function, physiology, and development in the Northern Cardinal. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

22. Suthers, R. A., and F. Goller (1997). Motor correlates of vocal diversity in songbirds. In Current Ornithology (V. Nolan Jr., E. D. Ketterson, and C. F. Thompson, Editors). Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 235–288.

23. Fletcher, N. H., T. Riede, and R. A. Suthers (2006). Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119: 1005–1011.

24. Riede, T., R. A. Suthers, N. H. Fletcher, and W. E. Blevins (2006). Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103: 5543–5548.

25. Jawor, J. M., and S. A. MacDougall-Shackleton (2008). Seasonal and sex-related variation in song control nuclei in a species with near-monomorphic song, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Neuroscience Letters 443(3): 169–173.

26. Goller, F., and T. Riede (2013). Integrative physiology of fundamental frequency control in birds. Journal of Physiology-Paris 107: 230–242.

27. Suthers, R. A., J. R. Rothgerber, and K. K. Jensen (2016). Lingual articulation in songbirds. Journal of Experimental Biology 219(4): 491–500.

28. Filliater, T. S., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Nestling provisioning by the extremely dichromatic Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 109: 145–153.

29. Linville, S. U., R. Breitwisch, and A. J. Schilling (1998). Plumage brightness as an indicator of parental care in male and female Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 55: 119–127.

30. DeVries, M. S., and J. M. Jawor (2013). Natural variation in circulating testosterone does not predict nestling provisioning rates in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behavior 85: 957–965.

31. Jawor, J. M. (2007). Testosterone in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Possible influence of prolonged territorial behavior. Auk 124(1): 331–338.

32. DeVries, M. S., A. L. Holbrook, C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2011). Non-breeding gonadal testosterone production of male and female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following GnRH challenge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174: 370–378.

33. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2012). Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior. Hormones and Behavior 62: 99–105.

34. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2015). Testosterone might not be necessary to support female aggression in incubating Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 107: 139–146.

35. Fokidis, H. B. (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): I. Seasonal patterns and effects of stress and adrenocorticotropic hormone. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 192–200.

36. Wright, S., and H. B. Fokidis (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 201–209.

37. Duckworth, B. M., and J. M. Jawor (2018). Corticosterone profiles in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages? General and Comparative Endocrinology 263: 1–6.

38. Scott, D. M. (1963). Changes in the reproductive activity of the Brown-headed Cowbird within the breeding season. Wilson Bulletin 75: 123–129.

39. Scott, D. M. (1977). Cowbird parasitism on the Gray Catbird at London, Ontario. Auk 94: 18–27.

40. Scott, D. M., P. J. Weatherhead, and C. D. Ankney (1992). Egg-eating by female Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 94: 579–584.

41. Scott, D. M., and R. E. Lemon (1996). Differential reproductive success of Brown-headed Cowbirds with Northern Cardinal and three other hosts. Condor 98: 259–271.

42. Eckerle, K. P., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Reproductive success of the Northern Cardinal, a large host of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 99: 169–178.

43. Filliater, T. S., R. Breitwisch, and P. M. Nealen (1994). Predation on cardinal nests: Does choice of nest site matter? Condor 96: 761–768.

44. Nealen, P. M., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Northern Cardinal sexes defend nests equally. Wilson Bulletin 109: 269–278.

45. Ritchison, G., P. H. Klatt, and D. F. Westneat (1994). Mate guarding and extra-pair paternity in Northern Cardinals. Condor 96: 1055–1063.

46. Scott, D. M. (1967). Postjuvenal molt and determination of age of the Cardinal. Bird-Banding 38: 37–51.

47. Wiseman, A. J. (1977). Interrelation of variables in postjuvenal molt of Cardinals. Bird-Banding 48: 206–223.

48. Thompson, C. W., and M. Leu (1994). Determining homology of molts and plumages to address evolutionary questions: A rejoinder regarding emberizid finches. Condor 96: 769–782.

49. Dow, D. D., and D. M. Scott (1971). Dispersal and range expansion by the Cardinal: An analysis of banding records. Canadian Journal of Zoology 49: 185–198.

50. Conner, R. N., M. E. Anderson, and J. F. Dickson (1986). Relationships among territory size, habitat, song and nesting success of Northern Cardinals. Auk 103: 23–31.

51. Rodewald, A. D., and D. P. Shustack (2008). Consumer resource matching in urbanizing landscapes: Are synanthropic species over-matching? Ecology 89: 515–521.

52. Rodewald, A. D., D. P. Shustack, and L. E. Hitchcock (2010). Exotic shrubs as ephemeral ecological traps for nesting birds. Biological Invasions 12(1): 33–39.

53. Jones, T. M., A. D. Rodewald, and D. P. Shustack (2010). Variation in plumage coloration of Northern Cardinals in urbanizing landscapes. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(2): 326–333.

54. Shustack, D. P., and A. D. Rodewald (2011). Nest predation reduces benefits to early clutch initiation in Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Avian Biology 42: 204–209.

55. Padilla, B. J., and A. D. Rodewald (2015). Avian metapopulation dynamics in a fragmented urbanizing landscape. Urban Ecosystems 18(1): 239–250.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0390-z

56. Rodewald, A. D., and P. Arcese (2017). Reproductive contributions of Cardinals are consistent with a hypothesis of relaxed selection in urban landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5 (article 77).https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00077

57. Komar, N., J. Burns, C. Dean, N. A. Panella, S. Dusza, and B. Cherry (2001). Serologic evidence for West Nile Virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 1: 191–196.

58. Kilpatrick, A. M., S. L. LaDeau, and P. P. Marra (2007). Ecology of West Nile virus transmission and its impact on birds in the Western Hemisphere. Auk 124(4): 1121–1136.

59. Ward, M. P., T. A. Beveroth, R. Lampman, A. Raim, D. Enstrom, and R. Novak (2010). Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile Virus infection. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10: 909–913.

60. Molaei, G., M. C. Thomas, T. Muller, J. Medlock, J. J. Shepard, P. M. Armstrong, and T. G. Andreadis (2016). Dynamics of vector-host interactions in avian communities in four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus foci in the Northeastern U.S. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10(1): e0004347.

61. Ridgway, R. (1901). The birds of North and Middle America, Part 1. United States National Museum Bulletin 50.

62. Bent, A. C. (1968). Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies (Part 1). United States National Museum Bulletin 237.

63. Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

64. Yen, C. W. (1989). A plumage study of the Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis) of western Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Sciences (Taiwan) 1: 11–21.

65. Wiseman, A. J. (1968). Ageing cardinals by juvenal secondaries and secondary coverts. Inland Bird Banding News 40: 172–173.

66. Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

67. Kinser, G. W. (1973). Ecology and behavior of the Cardinal, Richmondena cardinalis (L), in southern Indiana. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

68. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: a review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105: 635–653.https://doi.org/10.1650/7225

69. Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76: 1–31.

70. Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22: 49–89.

71. Hudon, J. (1990). Unusual carotenoid use by the Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana) and its evolutionary implications. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 2311–2320.

72. McGraw, K. J., G. E. Hill, and R. S. Parker (2003). Carotenoid pigments in a mutant Cardinal: implications for the genetic and enzymatic control mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in birds. Condor 105: 587–592.

73. McGraw, K. J., G. E. Hill, R. Stradi, and R. S. Parker (2001). The influence of carotenoid acquisition and utilization on the maintenance of species-typical plumage pigmentation in male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(6): 843–852.

74. McGraw, K. J., and G. E. Hill (2001). Carotenoid access and intraspecific variation in plumage pigmentation in male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinals cardinalis). Functional Ecology 15(6): 732–739.

75. Linville, S. U. (1997). Sexual selection and plumage ornamentation in a socially monogamous passerine, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA.

76. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality. Behavioral Ecology 10: 80–90.

77. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Is red coloration of male Northern Cardinals beneficial during the nonbreeding season?: A test of status signaling. Condor 101(3): 655–663.

78. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Female mate choice in Northern Cardinals: Is there a preference for redder males? Wilson Bulletin 111(1): 76–83.

79. Lindsay, W. R., D. G. Barron, M. S. Webster, and H. Schwabi (2016). Testosterone activates sexual dimorphism including male-typical carotenoid but not melanin plumage pigmentation in a female bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 3091–3099.https://doi.org/doi:10.1242/jeb.135384

80. Laskey, A. R. (1969). Bilaterial gynandrism in a Cardinal and a Rufous-sided Towhee. Auk 86: 760.

81. Peer, B. D., and R. W. Motz (2014). Observations of a bilateral gynandromorph Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126: 778–781.https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1676/14-025.1

82. Jones, A. W., and H. T. Bartlett (2017). A bilateral gynandromorph Northern Cardinal from South Bass Island. Ohio Biological Survey Notes 7: 14–16.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318471486_A_Bilateral_Gynandromorph_Northern_Cardinal_from_South_Bass_Island/download

83. Tumlison, R., D. B. Sasse, H. W. Robison, M. B. Connior, C. T. McCallister, K. Jobe, and M. Anderson (2018). Vertebrate natural history notes from Arkansas, 2018. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 72 (Article 7).https://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol72/iss1/7/

84. Hartman, F. E. (1968). White-headed Cardinal. Bird-Banding 39: 57.

85. Winstead, N. A. (2017). Aberrantly-colored yellow Northern Cardinals. Mississippi Kite 47: 40–43.

86. Brooks, M. (1934). A melanistic Cardinal at French Creek. Redstart 1: 1–2.

87. Baumgartner, A. M. (1986). Sex-reversal in banded Cardinal. North American Bird Bander 12: 76.

88. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106: 206–210.

89. Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

90. Sutton, G. M. (1935). The juvenal plumage and postjuvenal molt in several species of Michigan sparrows. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 3. Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.

91. Stone, W. (1896). The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 43: 108–164.

92. Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13: 73–360.

93. Blake, C. H. (1971). Primary molt in juvenile Cardinals. Bird-Banding 42: 269–274.

94. Reese, J. G. (1975). Fall remix and rectrix molt in the Cardinal. Bird-Banding 46: 305–310.

95. Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22: 49–89.

96. Pyle, P., J. F. Saracco, and D. F. DeSante (2018). Evidence of widespread movements from breeding to molting grounds by North American landbirds. Auk: Ornithological Advances 135: 506–520.https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-17-201.1

97. Grubb, T. C., T. A. White, and A. J. Wiseman (1991). Ptilochronology: Induced feather growth in Northern Cardinals varies with age, sex, ambient temperature and daylength. Wilson Bulletin 103: 435–445.

98. Wood, H. B. (1950). Growth bars in feathers. Auk 67: 486–491.

99. Jawor, J. M. (2002). Multiple ornaments and sexual selection in a socially monogamous passerine, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

100. Laskey, A. R. (1944). A study of the Cardinal in Tennessee. Wilson Bulletin 56: 27–44.

101. Sgueo, C. E. (2009). Seasonal acclimatization through physiological changes in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). M.S. thesis, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA.

102. Sgueo, C., M. E. Wells, D. E. Russell, and P. J. Schaeffer (2012). Acclimatization of seasonal energetics in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) through plasticity of metabolic rates and ceilings. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 2418–2424.

103. Miller, C. R., C. E. Latimer, and B. Zuckerberg (2018). Bill size variation in Northern Cardinals associated with anthropogenic drivers across North America. Ecology and Evolution 8: 4841–4851.https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4038

104. Rogers, C. M., and C. J. Rogers (1990). Seasonal variation in daily mass amplitude and minimum body mass: A test of a recent model. Ornis Scandinavica 21: 105–114.

105. Parkes, K. C. (1997). The Northern Cardinals of the Caribbean slope of Mexico, with the description of an additional subspecies from Yucatan. In The Era of Alan R. Phillips: A Festschrift (R. W. Dickerman, Editor), Horizon Communications, Albuquerque, NM, USA. pp. 129–138.

106. Dickinson, E. C., and L. Christidis (Editors) (2014) The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 2. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

107. Provost, K. L., W. M. Mauck III, and B. T. Smith (2018). Genomic divergence in allopatric Northern Cardinals of the North American warm deserts is linked to behavioral differentiation. Ecology and Evolution 8: 12456–12478.

108. Ortiz-Ramírez, M. F., L. A. Sánchez-González, G. Castellanos-Morales, J. F. Ornelas, and A. G. Navarro-Sigüenza (2018). Concerted Pleistocene dispersal and genetic differentiation in passerine birds from the Tres Marías Archipelago, Mexico. Auk 135: 716–732.https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-17-190.1

109. Paynter, R. A., Jr. (1970) Subfamily Emberizinae. Pages 3-214 in Check-list of birds of the world. Volume XIII (R. A. Paynter, Jr., and R. W. Storer, Editors), Museum of Comparitive Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14483224

110. Chesser, R. T., K. J. Burns, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., D. F. Stotz, B. M. Winger, and K. Winker (2018). Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 135: 798–813.https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-18-62.1

111. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood (2019). The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

112. Smithe, F. B. (1975). Naturalist's Color Guide. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA.

113. Jawor, J. M., S. U. Linville, S. M. Beall, and R. Breitwisch (2003). Assortative mating by multiple ornaments in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Behavioral Ecology 14(4): 515–520.

114. Smith, B. T., P. Escalante, B. E. Hernández Baños, A. G. Navarro-Sigüenza, S. Rohwer, and J. Klicka (2011). The role of historical and contemporary processes on phylogeographic structure and genetic diversity in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 136.https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-136

115. van Rossem, A. J. (1946). An isolated colony of the Arizona Cardinal in Arizona and California. Condor 48(5): 247–248.

116. Michener, H., and J. R. Michener (1938). Rare birds at a Pasadena banding station. Condor 40: 38–40.

117. Huey, L. M. (1940). A new Cardinal from central Lower California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 9: 215–218.

118. Banks, R. C. (1963). New birds from Cerralvo Island, Baja California, Mexico. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 37: 1–5.

119. Paynter, R. A., Jr. (1970). Subfamily Cardinalinae, cardinal-grosbeaks. In Check-list of Birds of the World, Volume XIII (R. A. Paynter Jr., and R. W. Storer, Editors), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA, USA. pp. 216–245.https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14483451

120. Browning, M. R. (1990). Taxa of North American birds described from 1957 to 1987. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103: 432–451.

121. van Rossem, A. J. (1932c). The avifauna of Tiburón Island, Sonora, Mexico, with descriptions of four new races. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 7: 119–150.

122. American Ornithologists' Union (1931) Check-list of North American birds. Fourth edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5824061

123. Amos, E. J. R. (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Corncrake, Warwick, Bermuda.

124. Hawaii Audubon Society (1967). Hawaii's Birds. Hawaii Audubon Society, Honolulu, HI, USA.

125. Grinnell, J., and A. H. Miller (1944). Distribution of the Birds of California. Pacific Coast Avifauna 27. Cooper Ornithological Society, Berkeley, CA, USA.

126. Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

127. Sprunt, A., Jr. (1954). Florida Birdlife. Coward-McCann, New York, NY, USA.

128. Miller, A. H. (1928). The status of the Cardinal in California. Condor 30: 243–245.

129. Bangs, O. (1903). The Louisiana Cardinal. Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club 4: 5–7.

130. Brewster, W., and F. M. Chapman (1891). Notes on the birds of the lower Suwanee River. Auk 8: 125–138.

131. Barker, F. K., K. J. Burns, J. Klicka, S. M. Lanyon, and I. J. Lovette (2015) New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. Auk 132: 333–348.https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-14-110.1

132. Hellack, J. J., and G. D. Schnell (1977). Phenetic analysis of the subfamily Cardinalinae using external and skeletal characteristics. Wilson Bulletin 89: 130–148.

133. Brewer, D. (2019). Pyrrhuloxia (Cardinalis sinuatus). In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors), Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.https://www.hbw.com/node/62188

134. McCarthy, E. M. (2006) Handbook of avian hybrids of the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

135. Gould, P. J. (1961). Territorial relationships between Cardinals and Pyrrhuloxias. Condor 63: 246–265.

136. Lemon, R. E., and A. Herzog (1969). The vocal behavior of Cardinals and Pyrrhuloxias in Texas. Condor 71: 1–15.

137. American Ornithologists' Union (1982). Thirty-fourth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 99: 1–16.

138. Audubon, J. J. (1840). The Cardinal Grosbeak. In The Birds of America. Dover Publications Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp. 198–203.

139. Nehrling, H. (1896). Cardinal. In Our Native Birds of Song and Beauty, George Brumder, Milwaukee, WI, USA. pp. 185–197.

140. Emslie, S. D. (1998). Avian community, climate, and sea-level changes in the Plio-Pleistocene of the Florida Peninsula. Ornithological Monographs 50: 1–113.

141. Rea, A. (1983). Once a River: Bird Life and Habitat Changes on the Middle Gila. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

142. Emslie, S. D., J. D. Speth, and R. N. Wiseman (1992). The prehistoric Puebloan avifaunas from the Pecos Valley, southeastern New Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology 12: 83–115.

143. Stewart, R. L. M., K. A. Bredin, A. R. Couturier, A. G. Horn, D. Lepage, S. Makepeace, P. D. Taylor, M. Villard, and R. M. Whittam (2015). Second Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritime Provinces. Environment Canada, Natural History Society of Prince Edward Island, Nature New Brunswick, New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, Nova Scotia Bird Society, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Prince Edward Island Department of Agriculture and Forestry.https://www.mba-aom.ca/

144. Robert, M., M. Hachey, D. Lepage, and A. G. Couturier (Editors) (2019). The Second Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Southern Québec. Regroupement QuébecOiseaux, the Canadian Wildlife Service (Environment and Climate Change Canada) and Bird Studies Canada, Québec, QC, Canada.

145. Cadman, M. D., D. A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage, and A. R. Couturier (Editors) (2007). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario 2001–2005. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto, ON, Canada.

146. Chartier, A. T., J. J. Baldy, and J. M. Brenneman (Editors) (2011). The Second Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas. Kalamazoo Nature Center, Kalamazoo, MI, USA.https://www.mibirdatlas.org/ Portals/12/MBA2010/GRAJaccount.pdf

147. Cutright, N. J., B. R. Harriman, and R. W. Howe (2006). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Society of Ornithology, Waukesha, WI, USA.

148. Pfannmuller, L., G. Niemi, J. Green, B. Sample, N. Walton, E. Zlonis, T. Brown, A. Bracey, G. Host, J. Reed, K. Rewinkel, and N. Will (2017). The First Minnesota Breeding Bird Atlas (2009–2013).https://mnbirdatlas.org/

149. Artuso, C., A. R. Couturier, K. D. De Smet, R. F. Koes, D. Lepage, J. McCracken, R. D. Mooi, and P. Taylor (Editors) (2018). The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Manitoba, 2010–2014. Bird Studies Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.http://www.birdatlas.mb.ca/

150. Peterson, R. A. (1995). The South Dakota Breeding Bird Atlas. South Dakota Ornithologists' Union, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND, USA.

151. Wickersham, L. E. (2016). The Second Colorado Breeding Bird Atlas. Colorado Bird Atlas Partnership and Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Denver, CO, USA.

152. Reinking, D. L. (2004). Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.

153. Lockwood, M. W., and B. Freeman (2014). The Texas Ornithological Society Handbook of Texas Birds. Louise Lindsey Merrick Natural Environment Series, volume 47. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, USA.

154. Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais (2005). Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

155. Rosenberg, K. V., R. D. Ohmart, W. C. Hunter, and B. W. Anderson (1991). Birds of the Lower Colorado River Valley. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

156. Small, A. (1994). California Birds: Their Status and Distribution. Ibis Publishing Company, Vista, CA, USA.

157. Wilbur, S. R. (1987). The Birds of Baja California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

158. Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.

159. Berger, A. J. (1972). Hawaiian Birdlife. 2nd edition. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

160. Anderson, D. L., M. Bonta, and P. Thorn (1998). New and noteworthy bird records from Honduras. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118(3): 178–183.http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40058111

161. Gallardo, R. J. (2014). Guide to the Birds of Honduras. Mountain Gem Tours, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

162. Mlodinow, S. G., and M. Bartels (2016). Tenth report of the Washington Bird Records Committee (2010–2013). Western Birds 47(2): 86–119.https://archive.westernfieldornithologists.org/archive/V47/47(2)-p086-p119.pdf

163. Marks, J. S., P. Hendricks, and D. Casey (2016). Birds of Montana. Buteo Books, Arrington, VA, USA.

164. O'Donnell, R. R., S. Carr, C. Fosdick, R. Bond, R. Fridell, S. Hedges, C. Neuman, R. Ryel, T. Sadler, J. J. Skalicky, M. Stackhouse, and M. Webb (2014). Rare birds of Utah: The nineteenth report of the Utah Bird Records Committee (2010–2012). Western Birds 45(2): 112–131.

165. Alcorn, J. R. (1988). The Birds of Nevada. Fairview West Publishing, Fallon, NV, USA.

166. Eidel, J. (2002). Report of the Nevada Bird Records Committee for 2000. Great Basin Birds 5: 1–5.https://static1.squarespace.com/static/552af065e4b02dd28bd006f0/t/562b1ff7e4b08b939a0a36a2/1445666807858/GBB_2000_Report.pdf

167. Beddall, B. G. (1963). Range expansion of the Cardinal and other birds in the northeastern states. Wilson Bulletin 75: 140–158.

168. Bull, J. (1974). Birds of New York State. Doubleday Natural History Press, Garden City, NY, USA.

169. Boyd, E. M. (1962). A half-century's changes in the bird-life around Springfield, Massachusetts. Bird-Banding 33: 137–148.

170. Laughlin, S. P., and D. P. Kibbe (1985). The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Vermont. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, USA.

171. Erskine, A. J. (1992). Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritime Provinces. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada.

172. McGowan, K. J., and K. Corwin (2008). The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.

173. Snyder, L. L. (1957). Changes in the avifauna of Ontario. In Changes in the Fauna of Ontario (F. A. Urquhart, Editor). University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON, Canada. pp. 26–42.

174. Dow, D. D. (1994). The Northern Cardinal in southern Ontario. In Ornithology in Ontario (M. K. McNicholl and J. L. Cranmer-Byng, Editors), Hawk Owl Publications, Whitby, ON, Canada. pp. 291–297.

175. Cyr, A., and J. Larivee (1995). Atlas Saisonnier des Oiseaux du Quebec. Les Presses de l'Universidad de Sherbrooke et la Societe de Loisir Ornithologique de l'Estrie, Inc., Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

176. Wheaton, J. M. (1879). Report on birds of Ohio. Ohio Geological Survey, Columbus, OH, USA.

177. Sutton, G. M. (1959). The nesting fringillids of the Edwin S. George Reserve, southeastern Michigan (part III). Jack Pine Warbler 37: 76–101.

178. Granlund, J., G. A. McPeek, and R. J. Adams (1994). The Birds of Michigan. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA

179. Robbins, S. D., Jr. (1991). Wisconsin Birdlife: Population and Distribution, Past and Present. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, USA.

180. Brown, H. C. (1920). The Cardinal in north-central Iowa. Wilson Bulletin 32: 123–132.

181. Robbins, M. B., and D. A. Easterla (1992). Birds of Missouri: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, USA.

182. Janssen, R. B. (1987). Birds in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

183. Krause, H., and S. G. Froiland (1956). Distribution of the Cardinal in South Dakota. Wilson Bulletin 68: 111–117.

184. Baylor, L. M. (2003). Northern Cardinal, third summer at Rapid City. South Dakota Bird Notes 55(4): 96–97.

185. Ducey, J. E. (1988). Nebraska Birds: Breeding Status and Distribution. Simmons-Boardman Books, Omaha, NE, USA.

186. Smith, A. R. (1996). Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Saskatchewan Natural History Society Special Publications 22, Regina, SK, Canada.

187. Monson, G., and A. R. Phillips (1964). A Check-list of the Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

188. Monson, G. (1949). Recent notes from the lower Colorado River Valley of Arizona and California. Condor 51: 262–265.

189. Ramírez Albores, J. E. (2010). Presence of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) in southwestern Puebla, Mexico. Huitzil 11(1): 42–45.

190. Dow, D. D. (1969). Habitat utilization by Cardinals in central and peripheral breeding populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47: 409–417.

191. Dow, D. D. (1969). Home range and habitat of the Cardinal in peripheral and central populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47: 103–114.

192. Emlen, J. T. (1972). Size and structure of a wintering avian community in southern Texas. Ecology 53: 317–329.

193. Calme, S., A. Desrochers, and J. L. Savard (2002). Regional significance of peatlands for avifaunal diversity in southern Quebec. Biological Conservation 107: 273–281.

194. Powell, B. F., and R. J. Steidl (2002). Habitat selection by riparian songbirds breeding in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(4): 1096–1103.

195. Davis, C. A. (2005). Breeding bird communities in riparian forests along the central Platte River, Nebraska. Great Plains Research 15(2): 199–211.

196. Scharf, W. C. (2007). Woodland bird use of in-channel islands in the central platte river, Nebraska. Prairie Naturalist 39(1): 15–28.

197. Russell, S. M., and G. Monson (1998). The Birds of Sonora. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

198. Lloyd, J. D., and T. Doyle (2011). Abundance and population trends of mangrove landbirds in southwest Florida. Journal of Field Ornithology 82(2): 132–139.

199. Lloyd, J. D., and G. L. Slater (2014). Abundance and distribution of mangrove landbirds in Florida. North American Fauna 80: 1–45.https://doi.org/10.3996/nafa.80.0001

200. Rodriguez-Estrella, R. (2007). Land use changes affect distributional patterns of desert birds in the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Diversity and Distributions 13: 877–889.

201. Leston, L. F. V., and A. D. Rodewald (2006). Are urban forests ecological traps for understory birds? An examination using Northern Cardinals. Biological Conservation 131: 566–574.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.03.003

202. McClure, C. J. W., B. W. Rolek, and G. E. Hill (2013). Seasonal use of habitat by shrub-breeding birds in a southeastern national forest. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 125(4): 731–743.

203. Donovan, T. M., and C. H. Flather (2002). Relationships among North American songbird trends, habitat fragmentation, and landscape occupancy. Ecological Applications 12(2): 364–374.

204. Brennan, S. P., and G. D. Schnell (2005). Relationship between bird abundances and landscape characteristics: The influence of scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 105(1–3): 209–228.

205. Howell, J. E., J. T. Peterson, and M. J. Conroy (2008). Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the state of Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 168–178.

206. Peak, R. G., and F. R. Thompson III (2006). Factors affecting avian species richness and density in riparian areas. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(1): 173–179.

207. McKinney, R. A., and P. W. C. Paton (2009). Breeding birds associated with seasonal pools in the northeastern United States. Journal of Field Ornithology 80: 380–386.

208. Smith, P. C. (1969). Survival and dispersal of juvenal Cardinals. M.S. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

209. Ausprey, I. J. (2010). Post-fledging ecology of two songbird species across a rural-to-urban landscape gradient. M.S. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

210. Ausprey, I. J., and A. D. Rodewald (2013). Post-fledging dispersal timing and natal range size of two songbird species in an urbanizing landscape. Condor 115(1): 102–114.https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2013.110176

211. Merritt, R. E. (1975). The spatial relations within a selected population of the Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

212. Gentry, K. M. (2015). Territorial defense strategies in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): Who is the bigger threat? M.S. thesis, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

213. Dow, D. D. (1970). Distribution and dispersal of the Cardinal, Richmondena cardinalis, in relation to vegetational cover and river systems. American Midland Naturalist 84: 198–207.

214. Hundley, M. L. (1953). Winter distribution of the Eastern Cardinal in the vicinity of Morgantown, West Virginia. Journal of Science of Labor, Denison University 43: 66–111.

215. Evans, B. S., A. M. Kilpatrick, A. H. Hurlbert, and P. P. Marra (2017). Dispersal in the urban matrix: Assessing the influence of landscape permeability on the settlement patterns of breeding songbirds. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5 (article 63).https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00063

216. Crawford, R. L. (1981). Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida TV tower: a 25-year migration study. Bulletin of the Tall Timbers Research Station 22.

217. McAtee, W. L. (1908). Food habits of the grosbeaks. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey, Bulletin 32.

218. Samuelson, G. A. (1980). Northern Cardinals feeding on flying termites. 'Elepaio 40: 157.

219. Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson (1951). American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits: The Use of Trees, Shrubs, Weeds, and Herbs by Birds and Mammals of the United States. Dover Publications Inc, New York, NY, USA.

220. Smith, C. G., III, P. B. Hamel, M. S. Devall, and N. M. Schiff (2004). Hermit Thrush is the first observed dispersal agent for pondberry (Lindera melissifolia). Castanea 69(1): 1–8.

221. Tewksbury, J. J., G. P. Nabhan, D. Norman, H. Suzan, J. Tuxill, and J. Donovan (1999). In situ conservation of wild chiles and their biotic associates. Conservation Biology 13: 98–107.

222. Bartuszevige, A. M., and D. L. Gorchov (2006). Avian seed dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biological Invasions 8(5): 1013–1022.

223. Renne, I. J., W. C. Barrow Jr., L. A. Johnson Randall, and W. C. Bridges (2002). Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness. Diversity and Distributions 8(5): 285–295.

224. Koenig, W. D., and A. M. Liebhold (2005). Effects of periodical cicada emergences on abundance and synchrony of avian populations. Ecology 86(7): 1873–1882.

225. Geis, A. D. (1980). Relative attractiveness of different foods at wild bird feeders. In Special Scientific Report – Wildlife. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA.

226. Johansen, S. M., D. J. Horn, and T. E. Wilcoxen (2014). Factors influencing seed species selection by wild birds at feeders. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126(2): 374–381.

227. Worthington, D. W., R. M. Whiting, and J. G. Dickson (2004). Feeding habits of songbirds in east Texas clearcuts during winter. Texas Journal of Science 56(4): 427–440.

228. Brush, A. H. (1978). Avian pigmentation. In Chemical Zoology. Volume X, Aves (A. H. Brush, Editor). Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 141–161.

229. Linville, S. U., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Carotenoid availability and plumage coloration in a wild population of Northern Cardinals. Auk 114: 796–800.

230. Shuman, T. W., R. J. Robel, J. L. Zimmerman, and K. E. Kemp (1989). Variance in digestive efficiencies of four sympatric avian granivores. Auk 106: 324–326.

231. Browning, N. G., and R. J. Robel (1981). Metabolizable energy in four seeds fed to Cardinals. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 84: 115–118.

232. Willson, M. F. (1971). Seed selection in some North American finches. Condor 73: 415–429.

233. Willson, M. F. (1972). Seed size preference in finches. Wilson Bulletin 84: 449–455.

234. Willson, M. F., and J. C. Harmeson (1973). Seed preferences and digestive efficiency of cardinals and Song Sparrows. Condor 75: 225–234.

235. Dawson, W. R. (1958). Relation of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss to temperature in the Cardinal. Physiological Zoology 31: 37–48.

236. Porter, W. P., and D. M. Gates (1969). Thermodynamic equilibria of animals with environment. Ecological Monographs 39: 227–244.

237. Hinds, D. S., and W. A. Calder (1973). Temperature regulation of the Pyrrhuloxia and the Arizona Cardinal. Physiological Zoology 46: 55–71.

238. Schaeffer, P. J., M. C. Komer, and K. R. Corder (2015). Energy savings due to the use of shallow body temperature reduction in overwintering Northern Cardinals. Animal Biotelemetry 3: 34.

239. Smith, E. K., J. J. O’Neill, A. R. Gerson, A. E. McKechnie, and B. O. Wolf (2017). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: Resting metabolism, evaporative cooling and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert songbirds. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3290–3300.

240. Root, T. (1991). Positive correlation between range size and body size: A possible mechanism. Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: 817–825.

241. Lemon, R. E. (1965). The song repertoires of Cardinals (Richmondena cardinalis) at London, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 43: 559–569.

242. Halkin, S. L. (1990). Singing from the nest: Intrapair communication in Cardinals. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

243. Shaver, J. M., and M. B. Roberts (1933). A brief study of the courtship of the Eastern Cardinal. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 8: 116–123.

244. Nice, M. M. (1927). Experiences with Cardinals at a feeding station in Oklahoma. Condor 29: 101–103.

245. McClung, R. M. (1968). Red bird fly up. Massachusetts Audubon 52: 6–11.

246. Dittus, W. P., and R. E. Lemon (1969). Effects of song tutoring and acoustic isolation on the song repertoires of Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 17: 523–533.

247. Dittus, W. P., and R. E. Lemon (1970). Auditory feedback in the singing of cardinals. Ibis 112: 544–548.

248. Beecher, M. D. (1996). Birdsong learning in the laboratory and field. In Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, Editors), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. pp. 61–78.

249. Anderson, M. E., and R. N. Conner (1985). Northern Cardinal song in three forest habitats in eastern Texas. Wilson Bulletin 97: 436–449.

250. Lemon, R. E. (1974). Song dialects, song matching and species recognition by Cardinals Richmondena cardinalis. Ibis 116: 545–548.

251. Vondrasek, J. R. (2003). The evolution of territoriality and communication in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

252. Rodewald, A. D., and L. J. Kearns (2011). Shifts in dominant nest predators along a rural-to-urban landscape gradient. Condor 113(4): 899–906.

253. Rodewald, A. D., L. J. Kearns, and D. P. Shustack (2011). Anthropogenic resource subsidies decouple predator-prey relationships. Ecological Applications 21: 936–943.

254. Zimmerman, J. H. (1951). The songs of summer resident birds. Passenger Pigeon 13: 61–66.

255. Hooker, J. D. (2011). Impacts of temperature on the physiology and behavior of breeding in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Honors thesis, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

256. Leopold, A., and A. E. Enyon (1961). Avian daybreak and evening song in relation to time and light intensity. Condor 63: 269–293.

257. Laskey, A. R. (1935). Whisper songs and night singing. Migrant 6: 1–2.

258. Duncan, W. J., and P. A. Bednekoff (2006). Singing in the shade: Song and song posts of Northern Cardinals near nesting Cooper’s Hawks. Canadian Journal of Ornithology 84(6): 916–919.

259. Vondrasek, J. R. (2006). Nest-sitting by a male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Raven 77(1): 13–15.

260. Suthers, R. A., and S. A. Zollinger (2004). Producing song: The vocal apparatus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1016: 109–129.

261. Suthers, R. A. (1999). The motor basis of vocal performance in songbirds. In The Design of Animal Communication (M. D. Hauser and M. Konishi, Editors). MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. pp. 37–62.

262. Suthers, R. A. (2004). How birds sing and why it matters. In Nature's Music: The Science of Birdsong (P. Marler and H. Slabekoorn, Editors), Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. pp. 272–295.

263. Cuthill, I., M. Witter, and L. Clarke (1992). The function of bill-wiping. Animal Behaviour 43(1): 103–115.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80076-4

264. Shuman, T. W., R. J. Roebel, J. L. Zimmerman, and K. E. Kemp (1992). Time budgets of confined Northern Cardinals and Harris's Sparrows in flocks of different size and composition. Journal of Field Ornithology 63: 129–137.

265. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2020). Similarities in expression of territorial aggression in breeding pairs of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Ethology 38(3): 377–382.

266. Gottfried, B. M. (1976). Intrapopulational variation in the territory size of Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA.

267. Ritchison, G., and M. K. Omer (1990). Winter behavior of Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 51: 145–153.

268. Winters, C. P. (2011). Ornamentation, behavior, and maternal effects in the female Northern Cardinal. M.S. thesis, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

269. Breitwisch, R., A. J. Schilling, and J. B. Banks (1999). Parental behavior of a bigamous male Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 111(2): 283–286.

270. Jawor, J. M., and R. Breitwisch (2003). A unique ornament display in female Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 115(4): 464–467.

271. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2014). Female performance of male courtship display in Northern Cardinals. The Southeastern Naturalist 12: N13–N17

272. Jawor, J. M., and R. Breitwisch (2006). Is mate provisioning predicted by ornamentation? A test with Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ethology 112(9): 888–895.

273. Rodewald, A. D., D. P. Shustack, and T. M. Jones (2011). Dynamic selective environments and evolutionary traps in human-dominated landscapes. Ecology 92: 1781–1788.

274. Maney, D. L., A. K. Davis, C. T. Goode, A. Reid, and C. Showalter (2008). Carotenoid-based plumage coloration predicts leukocyte parameters during the breeding season in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ethology 114(4): 369–380.

275. Humbird, S. K., and D. L. H. Neudorf (2008). The effects of food supplementation on extraterritorial behavior in female Northern Cardinals. Condor 110(2): 392–395.

276. Millican, D. M., P. G. McGovern, and M. T. Stanback (2012). Effects of conspecifics on feeder choice by Northern Cardinals. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124: 808–811.

277. Hodges, J. (1949). A study of the Cardinal in Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 56: 347–361.

278. Wanamaker, J. F. (1942). A study of the courtship and nesting of the Eastern Cardinal Richmondena c. cardinalis (Linnaeus). M.S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

279. Christy, B. H. (1942). The Cardinal: The bird itself. Cardinal 5: 173–186.

280. Ganier, A. F. (1941). Through the seasons with the Cardinal. Migrant 12: 1–4.

281. Land, H. C. (1952). The seasonal shifting of behavioral patterns related to territorialism in the Cardinal. M.S. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

282. Winter, K. C. (1981). Interactions between nesting Cardinals and American Robins. Inland Bird Banding 53: 56–57.

283. Piper, W. H. (1990). Exposure to predators and access to food in wintering White-throated Sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis. Behaviour 112: 284–298.

284. Govoni, P. W., K. S. Summerville, and M. D. Eaton (2009). Nest sharing between and American Robin and a Northern Cardinal. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(2): 424–426.

285. Nolan, V., Jr. (1965). A male Cardinal helper at a nest of Yellow-breasted Chats. Wilson Bulletin 77: 196.

286. Lemmons, P. (1951). Cardinal feeds fishes. Nature Magazine 49: 536.

287. Brackbill, H. (1952). A joint nesting of Cardinals and Song Sparrows. Auk 69: 302–307.

288. Burns, R. D. (1963). Michigan cooperative Cardinal study nesting data. Jack Pine Warbler 41: 56–61.

289. Rutter, R. J. (1958). Cardinal versus Northern Shrike. Canadian Field-Naturalist 72: 172.

290. Pitzrick, V. M., and M. Pitzrick (1992). Shrike captures Cardinal. Kingbird 42: 15.

291. Brackbill, H. (1967). Cardinal being eaten alive by gray squirrel. Bird-Banding 38: 236.

292. Best, L. B., and D. F. Stauffer (1980). Factors affecting nesting success in riparian bird communities. Condor 82: 149–157.

293. Lemon, R. E. (1957). A study of nesting Cardinals (Richmondena cardinalis) at London, Canada. M.S. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

294. Richmond, A. (1978). An experimental study of advantages of monogamy in the Cardinal. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

295. Battle, K. E., S. L. Foltz, and I. T. Moore (2016). Predictors of flight behavior in urban and rural songbirds. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128: 510–519.

296. Smith-Castro, J. R., and A. D. Rodewald (2010). Effects of recreational trails on Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in forested urban parks. Natural Areas Journal 30: 328–337.

297. Smith-Castro, J. R., and A. D. Rodewald (2010). Behavioral responses of nesting birds to human disturbance along recreational trails. Journal of Field Ornithology 81: 130–138.

298. Huang, P., K. E. Sieving, and C. M. St. Mary (2012). Heterospecific information about predation risk influences exploratory behavior. Behavioral Ecology 23: 463–472.

299. Grade, A. M., and K. E. Sieving (2016). When the birds go unheard: Highway noise disrupts information transfer between bird species. Biology Letters 12(4): 20160113.

300. Stanback, M. T., and E. M. Powell (2010). Predator vocalizations affect foraging trade-offs of Northern Cardinals. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(1): 168–173.

301. Peck, G. K., and R. D. James (1987). Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution. Volume 2: Passerines. Miscellaneous Publications of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON, Canada.

302. Scott, D. M., R. E. Lemon, and J. A. Darley (1987). Relaying interval after nest failure in Gray Catbirds and Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 99: 708–712.

303. Shaver, J. M., and M. B. Roberts (1930). Some nesting habits of the Cardinal. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 5: 157–170.

304. Shustack, D. P. (2008). Reproductive timing in passerines in urbanizing landscapes. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

305. Johnston, R. F. (1964). The breeding birds of Kansas. Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History 12: 575–655.

306. Kearns, L. J., and A. D. Rodewald (2013). Within-season use of public and private information on predation risk in nest-site selection. Journal of Ornithology 154(1): 163–172.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0882-7

307. Borgmann, K. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2004). Nest predation in an urbanizing landscape: The role of exotic shrubs. Ecological Applications 14(6): 1757–1765.

308. Watts, B. D. (1987). Old nest accumulation as a possible protection mechanism against search-strategy predators. Animal Behaviour 35: 1566–1568.

309. Abernathy, V. E., and B. D. Peer (2016). Reduced ultraviolet reflectance does not affect egg rejection by Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128: 334–342.

310. Johnston, R. F. (1960). Directory of the bird-life of Kansas. Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History No. 23. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

311. Crowell, K. L., and S. I. Rothstein (1981). Clutch sizes and breeding strategies among Bermudan and North American passerines. Ibis 123: 42–50.

312. Scott, D. M. (1991). The time of day of egg laying by the Brown-headed Cowbird and other icterines. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 2093–2099.

313. Quay, W. B. (1989). Timing of sperm releases and inseminations in resident emberizids: A comparative study. Condor 91: 941–961.

314. Nice, M. M. (1931). The Birds of Oklahoma, Revised Edition. Publication of the University of Oklahoma, Biological Survey 3.

315. Nice, M. M. (1943). Studies in the life history of the Song Sparrow, part 2. Transactions of the Linnaean Society of New York 6: 1–328.

316. Lowther, P. E. 1993. Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). In The Birds of North America, No. 47 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.https://doi.org/10.2173/tbna.47.p

317. Harvey, G. F. (1903). The diary of a Cardinal's nest. Auk 20: 54–57.

318. Brackbill, H. (1944). Juvenile Cardinal helping at a nest. Wilson Bulletin 56: 50.

319. Hawksley, O., and A. P. McCormack (1951). Doubly-occupied nests of the Eastern Cardinal, Richmondena cardinalis. Auk 68: 515–516.

320. Rice, O. O. (1969). Record of female Cardinals sharing nest. Wilson Bulletin 81: 216.

321. Friedmann, H., and L. F. Kiff (1985). The parasitic cowbirds and their hosts. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 2: 226–302.

322. Ellison, K., and P. E. Lowther (2020). Bronzed Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.brocow.01

323. Stoklosa, S. K., L. J. Kearns, and A. D. Rodewald (2014) Risky edges: Temporal variation in brood parasitism of Northern Cardinals. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126: 94–97.

324. Cox, W. A., F. R. Thompson III, B. Root, and J. Faaborg (2012). Declining Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) populations are associated with landscape-specific reductions in brood parasitism and increases in songbird productivity. PLoS One 7: e47591.

325. Ausprey, I. J., and A. D. Rodewald (2011). Postfledgling survivorship and habitat selection across a rural-to-urban landscape gradient. Auk 128: 293–302.

326. Mobley, J. E. (1994). A general model for iteroparity: Development of the model and investigation of phylogenetic patterns with specific reference to the Northern Cardinal. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

327. Klimkiewicz, K., and A. G. Futcher (1987). Longevity records of North American birds: Coerebinae through Estrildidae. Journal of Field Ornithology 58: 318–333.

328. Ganier, A. F. (1937). Further notes on a very old Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 49: 15–16.

329. Rodewald, A. D., R. P. Rohr, M. A. Fortuna, and J. Bascompte (2015). Does removal of invasives restore ecological networks? An experimental approach. Biological Invasions 17: 2139–2146.

330. Karr, J. R., J. D. Nichols, M. K. Klimkiewicz, and J. D. Brawn (1990). Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: Will the dogma survive? American Naturalist 136: 277–291.

331. Mackay, A. J., W. L. Kramer, J. K. Meece, R. T. Brumfield, and L. D. Foil (2010). Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Journal of Medical Entomology 47(2): 238–248.

332. Savage, H. M., and L. Kothera (2012). The Culex pipiens complex in the Mississippi River basin: Identification, distribution, and bloodmeal hosts. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 28(4, Supplement): 93–99.

333. Stamm, D. D. (1963). Susceptibility of bird populations to eastern, western, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Proceedings of the 13th International Ornithological Congress: 591–603.

334. Jacob, B. G., N. D. Burkett-Cadena, J. C. Luvall, S. H. Parcak, C. J. W. McClure, L. K. Estep, G. E. Hill, E. W. Cupp, R. J. Novak, and T. R. Unnasch (2010). Developing GIS-based Eastern Equine Encephalitis vector-host models in Tuskegee, Alabama. International Journal of Health Geographics 9: 12.

335. Estep, L. K., C. J. W. McClure, N. D. Burkett-Cadena, H. K. Hassan, T. L. Hicks, T. R. Unnasch, and G. E. Hill (2011). A multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84(5): 718–726.

336. Molaei, G., P. M. Armstrong, C. F. Abadam, K. I. Akaratovic, J. P. Kiser, and T. G. Andreadis (2015). Vector-host interactions of Culiseta melanura in a focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus activity in southeastern Virginia. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0136743.

337. Komar, N. (2001). West Nile Virus surveillance using sentinel birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 58–73.

338. Komar, N., N. A. Panella, S. A. Langevin, A. C. Brault, M. Amador, E. Edwards, and J. C. Owen (2005). Avian hosts for West Nile Virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73(6): 1031–1037.

339. Gleiser, R. M., A. J. Mackay, A. Roy, M. M. Yates, R. H. Vaeth, G. M. Faget, A. E. Folsom, W. F. Augustine, R. A. Wells, and M. J. Perich (2007). West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23(1): 29–36.

340. Randall, N. J., B. J. Blitvich, and J. A. Blanchong (2013). Association between agricultural land use and West Nile Virus antibody prevalence in Iowa birds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(4): 869–878.

341. Owen, J. C., A. Nakamura, C. A. C. Coon, and L. B. Martin (2012). The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Veterinary Research 43(1): 34–42.https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-43-34

342. Marshall, J. S., D. A. Zuwerink, R. A. Restifo, and T. C. Grubb (2006). West Nile virus in the permanent-resident bird community of a fragmented Ohio landscape. Ornithological Monographs 60(1): 79–85.

343. Dusek, R. J., R. G. McLean, L. D. Kramer, S. R. Ubico, A. P. Dupuis, G. D. Ebel, and S. C. Guptill (2009). Prevalence of West Nile Virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81: 1151–1158.

344. Janousek, W. M., P. P. Marra, and A. M. Kilpatrick (2014). Avian roosting behavior influences vector-host interactions for West Nile Virus hosts. Parasites and Vectors 7: 399.https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-399

345. Foppa, I. M., R. H. Beard, and I. H. Mendenhall (2011). The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds. BMC Veterinary Research 7.

346. Vana, E. R., E. R. Wrobel, and T. E. Wilcoxen (2018). Variation in seroprevalence of antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Avipoxvirus in nine species of birds with differential access to feeders. Avian Biology Research 11: 7–11.

347. van Riper, C., S. G. van Riper, and W. R. Hansen (2002). The epizootiology and effect of avian pox on Hawaiian forest birds. Auk 119: 929–942.

348. States, S. L., W. M. Hochachka, and A. A. Dhondt (2009). Spatial variation in an avian host community: Implications for disease dynamics. EcoHealth 6: 540–545.

349. Greiner, E. C., G. F. Bennett, E. M. White, and R. F. Coombs (1975). Distribution of avian hematozoa of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1762–1787.

350. Gentry, K. M. (2013). Plasmodium prevalence in Northern Cardinals over an eight month period. Honors College thesis, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

351. Walstrom, V. W., and D. C. Outlaw (2017). Distribution and prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Journal of Parasitology 103(1): 63–68.

352. Speer, C. A., D. G. Baker, A. Yamaguchi, and J. P. Dubey (1997). Ultrastructural characteristics of a Lankesterella-like coccidian causing pneumonia in a Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Acta Protozoologica 36: 39–47.

353. Rickard, L. G. (1985). Proventricular lesions associated with natural and experimental infections of Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2663–2667.

354. Quentin, J. C., and N. Barré (1976). Description et cycle biologique de Tetrameres (Tetrameres) cardinalis n. sp. Annales de Parasitologie 51: 65–81.

355. Pence, D. B. (1972). The genus Oxyspirura (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) from birds in Louisiana. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 39: 23–28.

356. Peters, H. S. (1936). A list of external parasites from birds of the eastern part of the United States. Bird-Banding 7: 9–27.

357. Judd, W. W. (1962). Insects and other invertebrates from nests of the Cardinal, Richmondena cardinalis (L.), at London, Ontario. Canadian Entomology 94: 92–95.

358. Bochkov, A. V., and B. M. O'Connor (2013). Mites of the Subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) from North American birds. Journal of Medical Entomology 50(3): 501–509.

359. Durden, L. A., J. H. Oliver, and A. A. Kinsey (2001). Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a Georgia Barrier Island. Journal of Medical Entomology 38(2): 231–236.

360. Hamer, S. A., G. J. Hickling, R. Keith, J. L. Sidge, E. D. Walker, and J. I. Tsao (2012). Associations of Passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, USA. Parasites and Vectors 5: 231.https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-23

361. Heller, E. L., C. L. Wright, R. M. Nadolny, W. L. Hynes, H. D. Gaff, and E. L. Walters (2016). New records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 53(2): 441–445.

362. Durden, L. A., R. G. McLean, J. H. Oliver Jr., S. R. Ubico, and A. M. James (1997). Ticks, Lyme Disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal Georgia and South Carolina. Journal of Parasitology 83(6): 1178–1182.

363. Ginsberg, H. S., P. A. Buckley, M. G. Balmforth, E. Zhioua, S. Mitra, and F. G. Buckley (2005). Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(3): 445–449.

364. Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton, and T. Will (2016). Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.https://www.partnersinflight.org/resources/the-plan/

365. Rodewald, P. G., M. B. Shumar, A. T. Boone, D. L. Slager, and J. S. McCormac (2016). The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Ohio. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, USA.

366. Wilson, A. M., D. W. Brauning, and R. S. Mulvihill (2012). Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, USA.

367. Sauer, J. R., W. A. Link, and J. E. Hines (2020). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Analysis Results 1966–2019. U.S. Geological Survey data release.https://doi.org/10.5066/P96A7675

368. Tweit, R. C., and J. C. Tweit (1986). Urban development effects on the abundance of some common resident birds of the Tucson area of Arizona. American Birds 40: 431–436.

369. Young, H., B. Stollberg, and M. Deusing (1941). The spread of the Cardinal through Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 3: 1–4.

370. Suarez-Rubio, M., P. Leimgruber, and S. C. Renner (2011). Influence of exurban development on bird species richness and diversity. Journal of Ornithology 152(2): 461–471.

371. Zuckerberg, B., D. N. Bonter, W. M. Hochachka, W. D. Koenig, A. T. DeGaetano, and J. L. Dickinson (2011). Climatic constraints on wintering bird distributions are modified by urbanization and weather. Journal of Animal Ecology 80(2): 403–413.

372. Sakai, H. F. (1988). Avian response to mechanical clearing of a native rainforest in Hawaii. Condor 90: 339–348.

373. Rousseau, J. S., J.-P. L. Savard, and R. Titman (2015). Shrub-nesting birds in urban habitats: Their abundance and association with vegetation. Urban Ecosystems 18: 871–884.

374. Rega, C. C., C. H. Nilon, and P. S. Warren (2015). Avian abundance patterns in relation to the distribution of small urban greenspaces. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 141(3): A4015002.

375. Horn, D. J. (1985). Breeding birds of a central Ohio USA woodlot in response to succession and urbanization. Ohio Journal of Science 85: 34–40.

376. Malpass, J. S., A. D. Rodewald, and S. N. Matthews (2017). Species-dependent effects of bird feeders on nest predators and nest survival of urban American Robins and Northern Cardinals. Condor 119: 1–16.

377. Patnode, K. A., and D. H. White (1991). Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple exposure experimental design. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10: 1479–1486.

378. Cobb, G. P., R. Mellott, L. W. Brewer, C. M. Bens, and R. J. Kendall (2000). Diazinon dissipation from vegetation, occurrence in earthworms, and presence in avian gastrointestinal tracts collected from apple orchards following D-Z-N registered trademark 50W application. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(5): 1360–1367.

379. Cummings, J. L., J. F. Glahn, E. A. Wilson, and J. E. Davis Jr. (2002). Potential hazards of DRC-1339 treated rice to non-target birds when used at roost staging areas in Louisiana to reduce local populations of depredating blackbirds. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 49: 185–188.

380. Maul, J. D., and J. L. Farris (2005). Monitoring exposure of Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: Enzyme activity, reactivations, and indicators of environmental stress. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 1721–1730.

381. Schmitt, C. J., K. R. Echols, P. H. Peterman, C. E. Orazio, K. C. Grim, S. Tan, N. E. Diggs, and P. P. Marra (2018). Organochlorine chemical residues in Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) eggs from greater Washington, DC, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 100(6): 741–747.

382. Beyer, W. N., J. Dalgarn, S. Dudding, J. B. French, R. Mateo, J. Miesner, L. Sileo, and J. Spann (2004). Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48(1): 108–117.

383. Beyer, W. N, J. C. Franson, J. B. French, T. May, B. A. Rattner, V. I. Shearn-Bochsler, S. E. Warner, J. Weber, and D. Mosby (2013). Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the southeast Missouri lead mining district. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 65(3): 598–610.

384. Hager, S. B., H. Trudell, K. J. McKay, S. M. Crandall, and L. Mayer (2009). Bird density and mortality at windows. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120: 550–564.

385. Hager, S. B., B. J. Cosentino, K. J. McKay, C. Monson, W. Zuurdeeg, and B. Blevins (2013). Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape. PLoS ONE 8(1): e53371.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053371

386. Barton, C. M., C. S. Riding, and S. R. Loss (2017). Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0178667.

387. Perdue, C. T. (1979). Out-of-season breeding behavior of Cardinals. Jack Pine Warbler 57: 108.

388. Barron, D. G., P. J. Weatherhead, and J. D. Brawn (2013). A test of radio-transmitter effects on parental investment and productivity in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 115: 669–676.

389. Jawor, J. M., J. D. Hooker, and R. Mohn (2014). Testosterone production in non-breeding Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Is temperature influential? Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126: 261–268.

390. Folstad, I., and A. J. Karter (1992). Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. American Naturalist 139: 603–622.

391. Haskins, J. W., F. A. Spizzoucco, and B. G. Walker (2017). Seasonal variation and correlation between corticosterone and the antioxidant uric acid during stress in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Journal of Experimental Zoology 327: 358–365.

392. Barron, D. G., J. D. Brawn, L. K. Butler, L. M. Romero, and P. J. Weatherhead (2012). Effects of military activity on breeding birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 911–918.

393. Burger, M. E., and R. J. Denver (2002). Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in a wintering passerine bird: Their relationship to geographic variation, environmental factors, metabolic rate, and body fat. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74: 187–199.

394. Henley, C., A. Feduccia, and D. P. Costello (1978). Oscine spermatozoa: A light- and electron-microscopy study. Condor 80: 41–48.

395. Raikow, R. J., A. H. Bledsoe, B. A. Myers, and C. J. Walsh (1990). Individual variation in avian muscles and its significance for the reconstruction of phylogeny. Systematic Zoology 39: 362–370.

396. Kloek, G. P., and C. L. Casler (1972). The lung and air-sac system of the Common Grackle. Auk 89: 817–825.

397. Bass, R. A. (1979). Chromosomal polymorphism in cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 21: 549–553.

398. Jarvi, S. I., and M. E. M. Farias (2006). Molecular sexing and sources of CDH1-Z/W sequence variation in Hawaiian birds. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 1003–1005.

399. Chen, D. M., and T. H. Goldsmith (1986). Four spectral classes of cones in the retinas of birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology 159: 473–479.

400. Parrish, J. W., J. A. Ptacek, and K. L. Will (1984). The detection of near-ultraviolet light by nonmigratory and migratory birds. Auk 101: 53–58.

401. Dickson, J. G., R. N. Connor, and J. H. Williamson (1982). An evaluation of techniques for marking cardinals. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 420–421.

402. Ritchison, G. (1984). A new marking technique for birds. North American Bird Bander 9: 8.

403. Knott, B., M. L. Berg, R. F. H. Ribot, J. A. Endler, and A. T. D. Bennett (2017). Intraspecific geographic variation in rod and cone visual pigment sensitivity of a parrot, Platycercus elegans. Scientific Reports 7: 41445.https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41445

404. Storer, R. W. (1952). A comparison of variation, behavior, and evolution in the sea bird genera Uria and Cepphus. University of California Publication Zoology 52:121-222.

405. Mayfield, H. F. (1975). Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bulletin 87: 456–466.

Recommended Citation

Halkin, S. L., D. P. Shustack, M. S. DeVries, J. M. Jawor, and S. U. Linville (2021). Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.norcar.02