Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis

Sylvia L. Halkin, Daniel P. Shustack, M. Susan DeVries, Jodie M. Jawor, and Susan U. Linville
Version: 2.0 — Published February 12, 2021


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Literature Cited

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12. Halkin, S. L. (1997). Nest-vicinity song exchanges may coordinate biparental care of Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 54: 189–198.

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31. Jawor, J. M. (2007). Testosterone in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Possible influence of prolonged territorial behavior. Auk 124(1): 331–338.

32. DeVries, M. S., A. L. Holbrook, C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2011). Non-breeding gonadal testosterone production of male and female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following GnRH challenge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174: 370–378.

33. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2012). Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior. Hormones and Behavior 62: 99–105.

34. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2015). Testosterone might not be necessary to support female aggression in incubating Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 107: 139–146.

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Recommended Citation

Halkin, S. L., D. P. Shustack, M. S. DeVries, J. M. Jawor, and S. U. Linville (2021). Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.norcar.02