Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis
Version: 2.0 — Published February 12, 2021
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1. Lemon, R. E., and D. M. Scott (1966). On the development of song in young Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 191–197.
2. Lemon, R. E. (1966). Geographic variation in the song of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 413–428.
3. Lemon, R. E. (1967). The response of Cardinals to songs of different dialects. Animal Behaviour 15: 538–545.
4. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The displays and call notes of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46: 141–151.
5. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The relation between organization and function of song in Cardinals. Behaviour 32: 158–178.
6. Lemon, R. E., and C. Chatfield (1971). Organization of song in Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 19: 1–17.
7. Lemon, R. E. (1975). How birds develop song dialects. Condor 77: 385–406.
8. Lemon, R. E. (1975). Repetitions and pattern switches in songs of Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 38: 294–303.
9. Ritchison, G. (1986). The singing behavior of female northern cardinals. Condor 88: 156–159.
10. Ritchison, G. (1988). Song repertoires and the singing behavior of male Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 100: 583–603.
11. McElroy, D. B., and G. Ritchison (1996). Effect of mate removal on singing behavior and movement patterns of female Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 108: 550–555.
12. Halkin, S. L. (1997). Nest-vicinity song exchanges may coordinate biparental care of Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 54: 189–198.
13. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 100: 504–511.
14. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). Can a sexually dimorphic learned birdsong be used for male-female recognition? Behaviour 135: 833–844.
15. Jawor, J. M., N. Gray, S. M. Beall, and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behaviour 67(5): 875–882.
16. Jawor, J. M., and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments in male Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, as indicators of condition. Ethology 110(2): 113–126.
17. Vondrasek, J. R. (2006). Social factors affect the singing rates of female Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Avian Biology 37(1): 52–57.
18. Narango, D. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2016). Urban-associated drivers of song variation along a rural-urban gradient. Behavioral Ecology 27(2): 608–616.
19. Winters, C. P., and J. M. Jawor (2017). Melanin ornament brightness and aggression at the nest in female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Auk 134: 128–136.
20. Narango, D. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2018). Signal information of bird song changes in human-dominated landscapes. Urban Ecosystems 21(1): 41–50.
21. Yamaguchi, A. (1996). Female bird song: Function, physiology, and development in the Northern Cardinal. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
22. Suthers, R. A., and F. Goller (1997). Motor correlates of vocal diversity in songbirds. In Current Ornithology (V. Nolan Jr., E. D. Ketterson, and C. F. Thompson, Editors). Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 235–288.
23. Fletcher, N. H., T. Riede, and R. A. Suthers (2006). Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119: 1005–1011.
24. Riede, T., R. A. Suthers, N. H. Fletcher, and W. E. Blevins (2006). Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103: 5543–5548.
25. Jawor, J. M., and S. A. MacDougall-Shackleton (2008). Seasonal and sex-related variation in song control nuclei in a species with near-monomorphic song, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Neuroscience Letters 443(3): 169–173.
26. Goller, F., and T. Riede (2013). Integrative physiology of fundamental frequency control in birds. Journal of Physiology-Paris 107: 230–242.
27. Suthers, R. A., J. R. Rothgerber, and K. K. Jensen (2016). Lingual articulation in songbirds. Journal of Experimental Biology 219(4): 491–500.
28. Filliater, T. S., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Nestling provisioning by the extremely dichromatic Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 109: 145–153.
29. Linville, S. U., R. Breitwisch, and A. J. Schilling (1998). Plumage brightness as an indicator of parental care in male and female Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 55: 119–127.
30. DeVries, M. S., and J. M. Jawor (2013). Natural variation in circulating testosterone does not predict nestling provisioning rates in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behavior 85: 957–965.
31. Jawor, J. M. (2007). Testosterone in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Possible influence of prolonged territorial behavior. Auk 124(1): 331–338.
32. DeVries, M. S., A. L. Holbrook, C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2011). Non-breeding gonadal testosterone production of male and female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following GnRH challenge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174: 370–378.
33. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2012). Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior. Hormones and Behavior 62: 99–105.
34. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2015). Testosterone might not be necessary to support female aggression in incubating Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 107: 139–146.
35. Fokidis, H. B. (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): I. Seasonal patterns and effects of stress and adrenocorticotropic hormone. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 192–200.
36. Wright, S., and H. B. Fokidis (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 201–209.
37. Duckworth, B. M., and J. M. Jawor (2018). Corticosterone profiles in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages? General and Comparative Endocrinology 263: 1–6.
38. Scott, D. M. (1963). Changes in the reproductive activity of the Brown-headed Cowbird within the breeding season. Wilson Bulletin 75: 123–129.
39. Scott, D. M. (1977). Cowbird parasitism on the Gray Catbird at London, Ontario. Auk 94: 18–27.
40. Scott, D. M., P. J. Weatherhead, and C. D. Ankney (1992). Egg-eating by female Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 94: 579–584.
41. Scott, D. M., and R. E. Lemon (1996). Differential reproductive success of Brown-headed Cowbirds with Northern Cardinal and three other hosts. Condor 98: 259–271.
42. Eckerle, K. P., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Reproductive success of the Northern Cardinal, a large host of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 99: 169–178.
43. Filliater, T. S., R. Breitwisch, and P. M. Nealen (1994). Predation on cardinal nests: Does choice of nest site matter? Condor 96: 761–768.
44. Nealen, P. M., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Northern Cardinal sexes defend nests equally. Wilson Bulletin 109: 269–278.
45. Ritchison, G., P. H. Klatt, and D. F. Westneat (1994). Mate guarding and extra-pair paternity in Northern Cardinals. Condor 96: 1055–1063.
46. Scott, D. M. (1967). Postjuvenal molt and determination of age of the Cardinal. Bird-Banding 38: 37–51.
47. Wiseman, A. J. (1977). Interrelation of variables in postjuvenal molt of Cardinals. Bird-Banding 48: 206–223.
48. Thompson, C. W., and M. Leu (1994). Determining homology of molts and plumages to address evolutionary questions: A rejoinder regarding emberizid finches. Condor 96: 769–782.
49. Dow, D. D., and D. M. Scott (1971). Dispersal and range expansion by the Cardinal: An analysis of banding records. Canadian Journal of Zoology 49: 185–198.
50. Conner, R. N., M. E. Anderson, and J. F. Dickson (1986). Relationships among territory size, habitat, song and nesting success of Northern Cardinals. Auk 103: 23–31.
51. Rodewald, A. D., and D. P. Shustack (2008). Consumer resource matching in urbanizing landscapes: Are synanthropic species over-matching? Ecology 89: 515–521.
52. Rodewald, A. D., D. P. Shustack, and L. E. Hitchcock (2010). Exotic shrubs as ephemeral ecological traps for nesting birds. Biological Invasions 12(1): 33–39.
53. Jones, T. M., A. D. Rodewald, and D. P. Shustack (2010). Variation in plumage coloration of Northern Cardinals in urbanizing landscapes. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(2): 326–333.
54. Shustack, D. P., and A. D. Rodewald (2011). Nest predation reduces benefits to early clutch initiation in Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Avian Biology 42: 204–209.
55. Padilla, B. J., and A. D. Rodewald (2015). Avian metapopulation dynamics in a fragmented urbanizing landscape. Urban Ecosystems 18(1): 239–250.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0390-z
56. Rodewald, A. D., and P. Arcese (2017). Reproductive contributions of Cardinals are consistent with a hypothesis of relaxed selection in urban landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5 (article 77).https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00077
57. Komar, N., J. Burns, C. Dean, N. A. Panella, S. Dusza, and B. Cherry (2001). Serologic evidence for West Nile Virus infection in birds in Staten Island, New York, after an outbreak in 2000. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 1: 191–196.
58. Kilpatrick, A. M., S. L. LaDeau, and P. P. Marra (2007). Ecology of West Nile virus transmission and its impact on birds in the Western Hemisphere. Auk 124(4): 1121–1136.
59. Ward, M. P., T. A. Beveroth, R. Lampman, A. Raim, D. Enstrom, and R. Novak (2010). Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile Virus infection. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10: 909–913.
60. Molaei, G., M. C. Thomas, T. Muller, J. Medlock, J. J. Shepard, P. M. Armstrong, and T. G. Andreadis (2016). Dynamics of vector-host interactions in avian communities in four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus foci in the Northeastern U.S. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10(1): e0004347.
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62. Bent, A. C. (1968). Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies (Part 1). United States National Museum Bulletin 237.
63. Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.
64. Yen, C. W. (1989). A plumage study of the Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis) of western Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Sciences (Taiwan) 1: 11–21.
65. Wiseman, A. J. (1968). Ageing cardinals by juvenal secondaries and secondary coverts. Inland Bird Banding News 40: 172–173.
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68. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: a review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105: 635–653.https://doi.org/10.1650/7225
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72. McGraw, K. J., G. E. Hill, and R. S. Parker (2003). Carotenoid pigments in a mutant Cardinal: implications for the genetic and enzymatic control mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in birds. Condor 105: 587–592.
73. McGraw, K. J., G. E. Hill, R. Stradi, and R. S. Parker (2001). The influence of carotenoid acquisition and utilization on the maintenance of species-typical plumage pigmentation in male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(6): 843–852.
74. McGraw, K. J., and G. E. Hill (2001). Carotenoid access and intraspecific variation in plumage pigmentation in male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinals cardinalis). Functional Ecology 15(6): 732–739.
75. Linville, S. U. (1997). Sexual selection and plumage ornamentation in a socially monogamous passerine, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA.
76. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality. Behavioral Ecology 10: 80–90.
77. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Is red coloration of male Northern Cardinals beneficial during the nonbreeding season?: A test of status signaling. Condor 101(3): 655–663.
78. Wolfenbarger, L. L. (1999). Female mate choice in Northern Cardinals: Is there a preference for redder males? Wilson Bulletin 111(1): 76–83.
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97. Grubb, T. C., T. A. White, and A. J. Wiseman (1991). Ptilochronology: Induced feather growth in Northern Cardinals varies with age, sex, ambient temperature and daylength. Wilson Bulletin 103: 435–445.
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