SPECIES

Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis

Sylvia L. Halkin, Daniel P. Shustack, M. Susan DeVries, Jodie M. Jawor, and Susan U. Linville
Version: 2.0 — Published February 12, 2021

References

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Literature Cited

1. Lemon, R. E., and D. M. Scott (1966). On the development of song in young Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 191–197.

2. Lemon, R. E. (1966). Geographic variation in the song of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44: 413–428.

3. Lemon, R. E. (1967). The response of Cardinals to songs of different dialects. Animal Behaviour 15: 538–545.

4. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The displays and call notes of Cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46: 141–151.

5. Lemon, R. E. (1968). The relation between organization and function of song in Cardinals. Behaviour 32: 158–178.

6. Lemon, R. E., and C. Chatfield (1971). Organization of song in Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 19: 1–17.

7. Lemon, R. E. (1975). How birds develop song dialects. Condor 77: 385–406.

8. Lemon, R. E. (1975). Repetitions and pattern switches in songs of Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 38: 294–303.

9. Ritchison, G. (1986). The singing behavior of female northern cardinals. Condor 88: 156–159.

10. Ritchison, G. (1988). Song repertoires and the singing behavior of male Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 100: 583–603.

11. McElroy, D. B., and G. Ritchison (1996). Effect of mate removal on singing behavior and movement patterns of female Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 108: 550–555.

12. Halkin, S. L. (1997). Nest-vicinity song exchanges may coordinate biparental care of Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 54: 189–198.

13. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 100: 504–511.

14. Yamaguchi, A. (1998). Can a sexually dimorphic learned birdsong be used for male-female recognition? Behaviour 135: 833–844.

15. Jawor, J. M., N. Gray, S. M. Beall, and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behaviour 67(5): 875–882.

16. Jawor, J. M., and R. Breitwisch (2004). Multiple ornaments in male Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, as indicators of condition. Ethology 110(2): 113–126.

17. Vondrasek, J. R. (2006). Social factors affect the singing rates of female Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis. Journal of Avian Biology 37(1): 52–57.

18. Narango, D. L., and A. D. Rodewald (2016). Urban-associated drivers of song variation along a rural-urban gradient. Behavioral Ecology 27(2): 608–616.

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27. Suthers, R. A., J. R. Rothgerber, and K. K. Jensen (2016). Lingual articulation in songbirds. Journal of Experimental Biology 219(4): 491–500.

28. Filliater, T. S., and R. Breitwisch (1997). Nestling provisioning by the extremely dichromatic Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 109: 145–153.

29. Linville, S. U., R. Breitwisch, and A. J. Schilling (1998). Plumage brightness as an indicator of parental care in male and female Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 55: 119–127.

30. DeVries, M. S., and J. M. Jawor (2013). Natural variation in circulating testosterone does not predict nestling provisioning rates in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. Animal Behavior 85: 957–965.

31. Jawor, J. M. (2007). Testosterone in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Possible influence of prolonged territorial behavior. Auk 124(1): 331–338.

32. DeVries, M. S., A. L. Holbrook, C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2011). Non-breeding gonadal testosterone production of male and female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following GnRH challenge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174: 370–378.

33. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2012). Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior. Hormones and Behavior 62: 99–105.

34. DeVries, M. S., C. P. Winters, and J. M. Jawor (2015). Testosterone might not be necessary to support female aggression in incubating Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 107: 139–146.

35. Fokidis, H. B. (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): I. Seasonal patterns and effects of stress and adrenocorticotropic hormone. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 192–200.

36. Wright, S., and H. B. Fokidis (2016). Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235: 201–209.

37. Duckworth, B. M., and J. M. Jawor (2018). Corticosterone profiles in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages? General and Comparative Endocrinology 263: 1–6.

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Recommended Citation

Halkin, S. L., D. P. Shustack, M. S. DeVries, J. M. Jawor, and S. U. Linville (2021). Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.norcar.02