Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa guttifer
Version: 2.0 — Published February 19, 2021
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Priorities for Future Research
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Priorities for Future Research
The following is a list of research priorities that should be addressed to assist conservation and management organizations in protecting the species from extinction:
Monitoring. Regular surveys need to be conducted throughout the species’ range, especially in remote under-surveyed areas, to understand the species’ global distribution, assess abundance and population trend, and identify priority sites for protection (245, 109, 70, 77, 124, 81, 87, 96, 112). Data from tracking devices would be useful to spatiotemporally focus survey efforts and increase the probability of encountering the species (246). Subsequently, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the species’ population abundance, trend, and age structure needs to be completed.
Migratory Ecology Studies. Migratory and stopover ecology studies need to be conducted using tracking devices and widespread mark-resight methods to fully understand the species’ migratory phenology, strategies, routes, turn-over rates, and to ultimately identify critical sites to create a network of protected areas throughout the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF) for greater population resiliency (70, 77, 156, 246, 24).
Ecological Studies. Studies are needed throughout Magadan, Khabarovsk, and Sakhalin provinces to fully understand the species’ breeding range, habitat requirements, reproductive biology, limiting factors, demographic structure, and life-history (18, 115, 156, 109). Widespread tagging of the species with tracking devices would help researchers answer these questions.
Studies are needed to clarify the ecological and behavioral niche (breeding and non-breeding habitat requirements, factors limiting abundance, diet and foraging behavior, and juvenile and subadult life-history) to optimize management of habitat (70, 124, 133, 118, 92, 112). These insights may help ecologists understand if an Allee Effect may be occurring (i.e., low abundance causing reduced colonial breeding and thus reduced reproductive success). Understanding the species’ use of artificial and supratidal wetlands (e.g., saltpans, rice-paddies, aquaculture ponds) needs to be assessed via telemetry and mark-resight methods as it is important to understand the potentially harmful effects these often polluted and disturbed sites incur on the species. A systematic remote-sensing analysis of the distribution of artificial wetlands and an evaluation of the sustainability and longevity of such wetlands should be conducted to ensure they remain viable in rapidly developing countries with frequent land-use changes (176, 173, 157). Additional remote-sensing studies on the availability of suitable breeding, staging, stopover, and wintering sites throughout the species’ range, in conjunction with widespread ground-truthing surveys, needs to be conducted to prioritize conservation efforts and better inform management strategies (175, VVP). It is also essential to evaluate how the species differs in spatial behavior and demographic trends from other shorebirds in the EAAF, especially Common Greenshank, to establish baseline data and develop conservation strategies specifically targeting Nordmann’s Greenshank.
Hunting and Poaching Impact Assessments. The true impact of shorebird hunting and poaching throughout species range, as well as the socio-economic dimensions that may be driving these activities, are not fully understood and need to be studied. In addition, the appropriate place-based solutions for each region need to be identified (177, 196).
Reclamation and Development Impact Assessments. The multifaceted effects of reclamation and development need to be studied, as well as how the species may respond to habitat altercation and other forms of habitat loss (i.e., pollution and invasive species [Spartina spp.]). The functional links between development activities and biodiversity declines should be rigorously assessed. It is also crucial to conduct surveys of non-developed sites to accumulate baseline data in case reclamation and development were to occur (72, 169, 175, 110).
Mortality Studies. The effects of indirect human-induced mortality (from wind turbines, pipeline construction, inshore and offshore oil extraction, hydroelectric dams, automobiles, boats, aircraft, and passenger tanks) needs to be assessed (196; VVP). Disease should be investigated as it may also play a role in reducing abundance. In addition, there is a need to evaluate how the recent discovery of off-shore fossil fuel deposits off Sakhalin Island (Nabilsky Bay), and the planned and ongoing up-stream damming of major waterways from the Tibetan Plateau (Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Meghna, Padma, and Salween Rivers) by China may affect this species, as well as over 60 million people in down-stream nations such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam (247).