SPECIES

Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna creatopus Scientific name definitions

Ryan D. Carle, Valentina Colodro, Jonathan Felis, Joshua Adams, and Peter J. Hodum
Version: 2.0 — Published April 9, 2022

Conservation and Management

Listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN (77), and Endangered in Chile (75), and Canada (76). Vulnerable and Endangered statuses are based on the species’ small breeding range, which renders it susceptible to stochastic events and human impacts, and the documented anthropogenic impacts both on the breeding colonies and at sea. The Juan Fernández Islands are protected as a Chilean National Park, and Isla Mocha is protected as a Chilean National Reserve. Despite these designations, there are continuing impacts of historical habitat loss and degradation at both sites. See Habitat Loss and Degradation in Effects of Human Activity.

Effects of Human Activity

Land-based threats to breeding birds include habitat loss and degradation (36), predation from introduced mammals (64, 37, 38), chick harvesting on Isla Mocha (33) and fallout and mortality of birds from light pollution on nesting islands (78, 73). At sea, the species is threatened by mortality from fisheries bycatch (53, 79, 29, 16), plastic ingestion and other pollution, and likely competition with humans for prey (80, 75, 76, 81).

Habitat Loss and Degradation

In the Juan Fernández Islands, historical deforestation and ongoing grazing by introduced herbivores increases erosion. This issue is exacerbated by storms and periods of heavy rain. Burrows are affected by erosion to a greater extent in de-vegetated habitats (36). Erosion affects breeding populations indirectly through destroying or altering burrows (80, 81).

Grazing by cattle and introduced rabbits causes ongoing habitat damage on Isla Robinson Crusoe, by increasing erosion and by trampling of burrows by cattle (36). In Piedra Agujereada, the only colony to which cattle have access on Isla Robinson Crusoe, nearly 50% of the burrows showed structural damage (A. Gladics and PJH, unpublished data). A fence constructed in 2011 excluded cattle from much of the colony, resulting in increased vegetation cover and decreased damage to shearwater burrows (36). On Isla Santa Clara, nearly all native vegetation cover was destroyed by introduced rabbits, causing increased erosion. Rabbits were eradicated in 2003, but breeding habitat on Isla Santa Clara remains vulnerable to erosion (80, 37).

Other ecosystem modifications include changes to prey availability. During the breeding period, concentrates at foraging hotspots in Chilean waters overlapping with areas targeted by commercial and artisanal purse-seine fleets targeting common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) and Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; 82, 79, 29). These fisheries made average annual landings of 700,000 tons of sardine and anchoveta during the 1990s and 2000s (83). It is possible that competition with these fisheries limits Pink-footed Shearwater populations. The link between overfishing of sardine and anchoveta and population declines of seabirds has been more directly shown in Peru (84).

Fire is a potential threat to nesting birds and their habitat on all their breeding colonies. Fire could cause direct mortality during the breeding period, and/or degrade habitat as by increasing erosion via vegetation loss. Accidental fires have occurred in the Juan Fernández Islands, including a 70-ha fire on Isla Alejandro Selkirk (the only island in the archipelago where the species does not nest) as recently as 1996 (85). The period of peak fire risk coincides with the incubation and chick-rearing phases (27).

On Isla Mocha, historic deforestation of the coastal plain for human settlement and grazing likely reduced breeding habitat. The forested mountains in the middle of the island where it currently breeds are protected in the National Reserve (86). A regulated extraction of wood for local use occurs in the National Reserve (F. Astete, personal communication).

Effects of Invasive Species

On breeding islands, Pink-footed Shearwater is threatened by introduced mammalian predators and herbivores, and habitat modification from invasive plants (85, 37, 38). This species is adapted to breed on islands free of mammalian predators, and are easy targets for introduced predators such as cats and rats. Likewise, introduced mammalian herbivores easily destroy island flora not adapted to herbivory, thereby degrading breeding habitat (85, 39). Highly invasive plant species alter plant community composition and structure on Isla Robinson Crusoe, creating dense stands of woody vegetation inconsistent with use by shearwaters (85, 27). There is no biosecurity system on any of the three breeding islands, so the likelihood of introduction of additional non-native animal and plant species is a serious concern.

In the Juan Fernández Islands, introduced mammals documented within breeding colonies on Isla Robinson Crusoe are feral cat (Felis catus), feral dog (Canis lupus familiaris), South American coati (Nasua nasua), black rat (Rattus rattus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), cattle (Bos taurus), and house mouse (Mus musculus) (64, 87, 37, 38). Isla Santa Clara has been free of introduced mammals since 2003, when European rabbit was eradicated (75).

On Isla Mocha, introduced mammals that have been documented in breeding colonies are feral cat, feral dog, black rat, Norway rat, and European hare (Lepus europaeus) (61, 34, 62, 38). There are five species of native rodents on Isla Mocha (61, 60), as well as the pudu (Pudu pada), a small deer likely originally introduced by indigenous people (61).

European rabbit. Rabbits may compete with Pink-footed Shearwater for burrows (37), and also cause vegetation changes that increase erosion and degrade shearwater nesting habitat (27). When rabbits were eradicated from Isla Santa Clara, breeding pairs increased by nearly 40% within three years. This was likely due to a release of competition with rabbits for burrows. This release probably allowed a “floating population” of reproductively mature shearwaters that had not been nesting because of competition for burrow space, to occupy burrows (75, 27; also see Population Status: Trends). Similarly, a model of the impacts of various mammal assemblages showed that the absence of rabbits from breeding colonies resulted in a higher probability of burrow occupancy on the Juan Fernández Islands (37). Thus, eradication of rabbits from Isla Robinson Crusoe, or exclusion of rabbits from breeding colonies, could result in an increase in the number of breeding shearwaters. During 2020, a cattle exclusion fence around the Piedra Agujereada breeding colony on Isla Robinson Crusoe (36) was upgraded to exclude cattle, rabbits, cats, dogs, and coati (VC). Domestic rabbits have recently been brought Isla Mocha by residents (38). These have been kept in captivity but could easily escape and become feral (RDC).

Feral cat. The impact of cats on nesting seabirds is well documented on many other seabird colonies, and cats are a verified predator of Pink-footed Shearwater. Feral cats have been present on Isla Robinson Crusoe since at least the 1800s (63), and trail camera data indicate that, contemporarily, cats are present year-round in breeding colonies on that island (38). In a preliminary study, 2–4% of nests failed due to predation of the chick or adult, with the majority of mortality attributed to cats (PJH). On Isla Mocha, in five years of monitoring (2015–2020) with camera traps in five shearwater colonies, cats were documented in all years and all months, and seen at some point in every colony (38). Cat predation has also been documented via carcasses found in Isla Mocha colonies (Oikonos, unpublished data).

South American coati. The coati was introduced to Isla Robinson Crusoe in the 1930s (63). It has not been introduced to Isla Santa Clara or Isla Mocha. Both cats and coati are believed to have contributed to serious past declines in the population of Pink-footed Shearwateron Isla Robinson Crusoe (63, 71). A coati was directly observed digging up a shearwater burrow, extracting the adult, and killing it (38), and coati have been recorded by trail cameras with dead shearwaters in their mouths (C. Wolf, personal communication). Control of coati during the 1990s reduced their population (64), but recent evidence suggests that numbers have rebounded and are negatively impacting shearwaters (38). As of this writing in 2022, efforts were underway to eradicate coati from Isla Robinson Crusoe (J. Cabello Cabelin, personal communication).

Feral dog. Dogs are likely predators of the Pink-footed Shearwater, with the ability to excavate burrows to extract birds or capture birds outside of burrows. Feral dogs were documented on trail camera footage at multiple colonies on Isla Robinson Crusoe and Isla Mocha during 2015–2020 (38). Dogs sometimes accompany humans into the forest on Isla Mocha, either with people harvesting chicks, or following hikers up trails from the town (34, 62, 38).

Rodents. Trail camera data indicated the regular presence of black rat and Norway rat in breeding colonies on both Isla Robinson Crusoe and Isla Mocha (38). Given the impact of rats on ground-nesting seabirds elsewhere in the world, it is probable that they depredate Pink-footed Shearwater. However, stable-isotope analysis of rat tissues indicated that such depredation is likely infrequent on Isla Robinson Crusoe, given the rats' primarily terrestrial isotopic signatures and a dietary trophic level below that of shearwaters (88). Rats have been observed entering burrows on Isla Mocha (38), and egg shell fragments have been found on the ground in colonies (34), but the extent of rat predation is unknown. House mouse was documented in breeding colonies on Isla Robinson Crusoe using trail cameras, though they were infrequently observed (38). It is unclear if their infrequency was due to their small size not triggering trail cameras, or actual low abundance (38). House mice were reported to be present on Isla Mocha (87) but upon review, that report had no substantiated primary observation (38); more work is needed to determine if mice are present there. Rodents native to Isla Mocha were observed infrequently by camera traps in breeding colonies (i.e. 1–2 individuals per year (2015–2020) across five colonies; 38). Given their apparently low abundance in shearwater colonies and long cohabitation of Isla Mocha with shearwaters, it seems unlikely that these species pose a conservation threat.

European hare. Hares have been introduced to Isla Mocha but not to the Juan Fernández Islands. Unlike rabbits, hares are unlikely to compete with shearwaters for burrows. However, they could impact the native vegetation of Isla Mocha through herbivory. Based on camera trap monitoring, hares were present in two of five monitored shearwater colonies on Isla Mocha but were not recorded in all years (38).

Pudu. Pudu, a small deer native to continental South America, is present on Isla Mocha (61, 38). It is not clear whether this species should be considered native or non-native because it was probably introduced by indigenous people before European contact (61). Pudu are small and unlikely to damage burrows via trampling. Pudu could impact the native forest vegetation through herbivory, with potential indirect impacts on shearwaters.

Cattle. Cattle are present on Isla Robinson Crusoe and Isla Mocha, but only overlap with shearwater colonies on Isla Robinson Crusoe (38). Cattle are a managed species on Isla Robinson Crusoe, but cause damage via herbivory of native vegetation, leading to increased erosion, and by direct trampling of shearwater burrows (36). See Habitat Loss and Degradation section for detailed information about the impacts of cattle grazing.

Plants. Highly invasive plant species like maqui (Aristotelia chilensis), elm-leaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolia), and Chilean guava (Ugni molinae) dramatically alter plant community composition and structure on Isla Robinson Crusoe, creating dense stands of woody vegetation inconsistent with use by shearwaters (85, 27). Trun (Aceana argentea) is an introduced herbaceous perennial plant that is common in deforested shearwater colonies on Isla Robinson Crusoe. Trun has extraordinarily sticky seeds that could stick to feathers and cause individuals to expend more energy preening, though this is speculative (36). Trun also forms dense mats that may impede access to burrows or exclude the possibility of burrowing (36). Exclusion of cattle from shearwater colonies reduced coverage of trun by promoting the growth of more palatable plants that are usually grazed down by cattle (36).

Hunting and Trapping

The practice of harvesting chicks for food is illegal in Chile. However, on Isla Mocha chicks are considered a local delicacy and have historically been harvested annually by the island’s residents (with reports of some commercial exchange with the mainland noted by Guicking (34). The scale of that harvest, as described, was conceivably large enough to have caused population-level impacts. Chick harvesting by locals was first reported in the early 20th century, with early exploitation levels unknown. More recently, Guicking (34) estimated a harvest of 3,000–5,000 chicks per year, or an estimated 20% of annual chick production. CONAF (86) reported a harvest of 8,000 chicks per year (~40% of the production of the current population estimate of 19,400 nests). Since 2010, the Chilean government has enforced a ban on chick harvesting and there are indications that chick harvesting has dropped dramatically, with one estimate of about 200 taken a year (86). It is important to note that obtaining meaningful estimates of take rates from an illegal harvest is extremely difficult, and estimates of recent harvest levels are uncertain. In May 2018, CONAF (the Chilean National Park Service) registered an incident in which 300 chicks were harvested within the Isla Mocha National Reserve, and subsequently filed a legal complaint (VC). The accused harvester was punished with a three-day training workshop focused on Pink-footed Shearwater conservation and was required to conduct subsequent outreach activities addressed to the Isla Mocha community to raise awareness about the species (VC).

Impacts of chick-harvest extend beyond the direct mortality of chicks, because harvesting frequently involves destroying burrows to extract the chicks. Destruction of a burrow breaks the pair bond, effectively removing burrows and adults from chick production for one or more subsequent years (75, 81). On Isla Mocha, chick harvesters historically used tools such as hooks and mattocks to access chicks in longer burrows, destroying nests in the process. Guicking (34) noted that such burrow destruction occurred “in many cases” of harvesting; at present, nest destruction continues to occur, albeit with unknown frequency (VC).

Pesticides and Other Contaminants/Toxics

Pesticides, discharge of industrial wastes, and oil spills are potential threats to foraging birds on the Chilean coast (78). However, impacts of these threats on population size or trends have not been measured. Breeding adults and young chicks on Isla Mocha had elevated levels of methyl mercury (MeHg) in their feathers (89). Levels in the body feathers of older chicks were much reduced, suggesting adult exposure during migration or wintering, with MeHg in the down of young chicks being derived from eggs (89). Mercury and Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues have also been found in eggs from Santa Clara Island in Chile, with composition of PCB constituents different among Pink-footed Shearwater compared with eggs from resident Chilean seabird species, perhaps related to accumulation during migration or different catabolic pathways (90).

Fouling by petroleum products is also a potential significant threat throughout the species’ marine range. This could result from accidental or deliberate releases of petroleum products from platforms, ships and/or terrestrial sources, and could cause mortality of individuals and seriously impact foraging habitat and/or prey. At least one Pink-footed Shearwater was killed in an oil spill off central California in the 1990s (91). The species is known to raft on the water in large groups in both the breeding and wintering range (27), which increases the risk of severe mortality from spills. Results of tracking have helped identify both breeding and nonbreeding hotspots in Chile, Peru, Mexico, the United States and Canada (29, 16), information which can be used to predict areas with elevated risk of contamination.

Plastic consumption is another threat. Foraging seabirds are known to ingest floating pieces of plastic they mistake for food or ingest them incidentally when consuming other foods (e.g., 92). Ingestion of plastic can lead to injury or death via physical damage or a reduction in ingested volume of prey (93). Individuals found dead from other causes and necropsied from both the Juan Fernández Islands and Isla Mocha had plastics in their stomachs (D. Hyrenbach and Oikonos, unpublished data).

Collisions with Stationary/Moving Structures or Objects

Light Pollution

The widespread and ever-growing use of artificial light at night is an increasing threat to seabirds. Burrow-nesting petrels and shearwaters are attracted to artificial lights at night, become disorientated, and are forced to land (72). This phenomenon, called fallout or grounding (94, 72), can cause mass-mortality events (95, 96, 97, 98, 99). Light-induced grounding can be fatal due to collisions with human-made structures (e.g., buildings, electric wires and pylons, fences, or posts) or the ground. Even if uninjured, grounded birds may be unable to take off again and are vulnerable to predation, vehicle collisions (99, 72), starvation or dehydration, and poaching (some people eat grounded birds; M. LeCorre, personal communication, 72).

Fallout events and impacts have been recorded at Isla Robinson Crusoe and Isla Mocha, primarily during the fledging period (April and May; 72). Between 2012 and 2018, 226 grounded fledglings were recorded at the town of San Juan Bautista, Isla Robinson Crusoe, with a maximum of 43 individuals per season (73). During one four-year period, 164 grounded birds were rescued, 41% of which died (72). During the same period, an estimated 0.5 to 1.1% of the fledglings produced on Isla Robinson Crusoe were grounded by light attraction (72).

Fortunately, Isla Mocha does not have public streetlights; however, there have been occasional fallout events associated with local community events with temporary exterior lights installations (73). In February 2016 and 2017, there were fallouts of 80 birds and 30 birds, respectively, associated with lighting of special events (73). There has also been fallout from lights of small numbers of fledglings, mainly in April and May (73).

Offshore infrastructure such as oil platforms or wind turbines also present a risk of light attraction and collision. Threats to birds from offshore oil platforms include collision, incineration, and exposure to oil (reviewed by 100). Shearwater species have sometimes interacted with offshore oil infrastructure, though rigorously collected data on interactions is limited (100).

Increasing interest in developing offshore renewable energy off the coast of the California and Oregon in the United States poses an emerging risk. Plans to place offshore wind energy infrastructure in relatively deep waters near the continental shelf break would overlap with key habitats used in the nonbreeding period (43). Among the suite of California Current marine birds, Pink-footed Shearwater were ranked as ‘medium’ for estimated vulnerability of collision with energy infrastructure (101, 102). They were ranked as ‘high’ for relative vulnerability associated with displacement, because of relatively high population vulnerability, high macro-avoidance, and low habitat flexibility (101, 102).

Fisheries Bycatch

Mortality from fisheries bycatch is the most urgent at-sea threat, with rates of mortality conservatively estimated at > 1,000 birds killed annually worldwide (reviewed in 16, 29). The species crosses the Exclusive Economic Zone waters of at least 12 countries during their ~20,000 km long round-trip migration, and overlaps with a multitude of fisheries (16). These fisheries use a wide range of gear types and have differing levels of regulatory oversight and observer coverage (reviewed in 16). In three years of tracking during the chick-rearing period (February–March), breeding birds overlapped extensively with industrial and artisanal purse-seine fisheries in Chile (29). Bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwater has been documented in Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and the United States, and in international waters (Table 1; reviewed in 16). Pink-footed Shearwaters have been recorded as bycatch in fisheries using purse-seine, long-line, trawl, gill net, and drift net gear (Table 1; reviewed in 16). There are major data gaps for many regions and fisheries where there is no observer coverage and/or bycatch has not been studied (Table 1; reviewed in 16).

Chile

The south-central region purse-seine fleets operate near the Isla Mocha breeding colony and fish sardine and anchovy in the same hotspots used by foraging shearwaters (28, 29). Birds tracked from Isla Mocha had the greatest overlap with the industrial and artisanal sardine/anchovy fisheries near Valdivia, directly around Isla Mocha, and from the Gulf of Arauco northward to offshore of Talcahuano (29).

An observer program of purse-seine fisheries in south-central and northern Chile documented Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch in industrial and artisanal purse-seine fisheries fleets targeting common sardine, Peruvian anchoveta, and Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus; 79). The greatest rates of bycatch and mortality were in the industrial purse-seine fishery targeting sardine and anchoveta in south-central Chile, with 1,539 captures and 905 mortalities observed in 280 sets during 2015-2017 (observer coverage 15.8-23.1% of trips per year; 79). Rates of capture per set were also greatest in that fishery, with 5.5 captures and 3.2 mortalities per set (79). Capture and mortality were also high in the artisanal purse-seine fishery in the south-central region, with 1,021 captures and 591 mortalities in 487 sets during the same time period (observer coverage 1.3–2.1% of trips per year; 79). Another study of nine exploratory sets in this artisanal fishery recorded 11.4 shearwaters (both Pink-footed Shearwater and Sooty Shearwater) captured per set (53). Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch rates were lower in industrial fleets targeting jack mackerel in the south-central region and targeting anchovy in the northern region (79). In side-by-side experimental sets off south-central Chile, bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwater and other seabirds was reduced from 15.92 birds caught per set (1,051 total birds) with conventional gear to 0.28 birds caught per set (27 total birds) when using “modified purse-seine” nets (n = 76 trips, 109 days; 103). Modified purse-seine nets have a smaller hanging ratio, a smaller mesh size in the zipper section of the net, and less excess rope along the zipper, leading to less entanglement and entrapment (104, 103).

Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch has also occurred in gill-net, long-line, and trawl fisheries in Chile (105, 53, Table 1). Based on fisher interviews, there were an estimated 911 Pink-footed Shearwater mortalities annually in Chilean artisanal gill-net, long-line, and purse-seine fisheries, with the majority of mortalities caused by gill-nets (105). Tracked birds from Isla Mocha also overlapped with the operating areas of various Chilean purse-seine, trawl, and long-line fisheries for which observer data are not available (29).

Current annual observer coverage of the south-central industrial sardine/anchoveta fishery (15.8–23.1% of trips; 79) is close to or within the range of 20–33% minimum observer coverage threshold recommended for accurate bycatch estimation in purse-seine fisheries (106). Current annual observer coverage of the artisanal sardine/anchoveta fishery and jack mackerel fisheries (1.3–2.1%, and 11.6–12.2% of trips; 79) is useful for identifying the existence of seabird bycatch, but < 20% observer coverage is considered inadequate to document particular species’ interaction rates in both purse-seine and longline fisheries (106, 107, reviewed in 108).

Countries Other than Chile

There is little information about fisheries interactions with the species outside of Chile, because many fisheries have limited or no observer effort (Table 1; 16). A literature review of all countries and gear types in which the species has been recorded as bycatch is below (Table 1; from 16). Peru, Mexico, the United States, and Ecuador stand out as high-use Pink-footed Shearwater areas with major data gaps. For example, all birds tracked during migration spent time in Peruvian waters (16). Based on fisher interviews, Mangel et al. (105) estimated annual mortality of 500–1,000 Pink-footed Shearwaters in Peruvian gill-net fisheries. The only documented bycatch of the species from Ecuador is from a long-line fishery (109). Both Peru and Ecuador have other major fisheries that overlap with Pink-footed Shearwater, including purse-seine and drift-net fleets (105). Interaction with these fleets are likely but has not been evaluated.

Pink-footed Shearwater spend relatively little time in Exclusive Economic Zone waters of Central American countries (16), but have been documented as bycatch in Guatemalan gill-net fisheries (110). Mexican purse-seine fisheries targeting sardine in the Gulf of California have captured the species, though limited observer data suggest that bycatch rates are lower than in Chile (< 10 birds have been observed captured; E. Velarde, unpublished data). In the United States, bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwater has been recorded at low levels in long-line and trawl fisheries (111, 112). Bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwater has not been documented in Canada.

With few exceptions, observer coverage is lacking in fisheries that overlap with the species’ at-sea range (16; Table 1). No government-run observer programs documenting seabird bycatch exist in Peru, Ecuador, or Mexico. Some fisheries in the United States have adequate observer coverage (i.e., the west coast groundfish fleet; 112) but many have low or no coverage. For example, state-administered purse-seine fisheries in California, United States, are not monitored for seabird bycatch (113). In British Columbia, Canada, observers on groundfish longline vessels have been phased out and replaced with electronic monitoring systems (114). After each trip a minimum of 10% of fishing events are audited and seabird bycatch events are identified (114). There are no confirmed records of Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch in Canada's Pacific demersal longline fisheries. However, on average 35% of bycaught birds annually reported from audits of electronic monitoring system videos were reported as 'unidentified bird' (range 4.4–61.5%; years 2006–2012; K. Morgan, unpublished data). Given the high proportion of unidentified bycaught birds in these fisheries, and the spatial overlap of the Pink-footed Shearwater with them, it is possible that bycatch of the species could occur and more monitoring could be informative.

Management

All known breeding colonies are within nationally protected areas in Chile. The Juan Fernández Islands were designated as a Chilean National Park in 1935 and a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1977. Isla Mocha was designated a Chilean National Reserve in 1988. In Chile, the species was listed as Threatened in 2009 (75) and the Pink-footed Shearwater Recovery, Conservation and Management Plan was approved in 2020 and formalized in 2022 (115). A Chilean National Plan of Action for reducing bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries was approved in 2007 (116), and a plan for purse-seine fisheries is currently underway. In Canada, the species is listed as Endangered and protected by the Recovery Strategy for the Short-tailed Albatross and the Pink-footed Shearwater (76). In 2015, the species was added to the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (117), a binding international treaty created to advance the conservation of threatened procellariiform seabirds.

Since 2002, the species’ annual reproductive success, mortality rates from mammalian predation, and threat assessments have been monitored annually on all known breeding islands. Numerous conservation measures have been implemented to protect the species. In the Juan Fernández Islands, a mammal-proof fence was constructed to protect the second largest colony on Isla Robinson Crusoe. A smaller fence was installed on Isla Santa Clara to exclude Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii) from a breeding colony where they were trampling burrows. Planting of native plant species within a protective exclosure has been used to restore breeding habitat in multiple colonies. In addition, European rabbit was eradicated from Isla Santa Clara in 2003 and a coati eradication on Isla Robinson Crusoe is underway (in 2022). On Isla Mocha, park rangers work with the federal police to enforce the prohibition on chick harvesting Community-based education and conservation programs have been underway since 2002 on Isla Robinson Crusoe and since 2010 on Isla Mocha.

Satellite and GPS tracking have been used to determine foraging areas, migratory routes and wintering areas, and potential interactions with fisheries of breeding birds from the Juan Fernández Islands and Isla Mocha (82, 29, 28, 16). At-sea observer programs are used to monitor bycatch in purse-seine fisheries in Chile (79) and in small-scale Peruvian fisheries (105).

Recommended Citation

Carle, R. D., V. Colodro, J. Felis, J. Adams, and P. J. Hodum (2022). Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (P. G. Rodewald and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.pifshe.02