SPECIES

Sand Lark Alaudala raytal Scientific name definitions

Prasad Ganpule and Per Alström
Version: 2.0 — Published May 7, 2022

Tables and Appendices

Table 1

Linear measurements (in mm) for subspecies (mean and sample size n in parentheses when given)

Subspecies Sex Location Wing Tail Bill* Tarsus Hind Claw Length** Head*** Ref
adamsi F - 78–84 (mean 81.2; n = 14) 42–48 (mean 43.7; n = 14) - - - - - Shirihai and Svensson 2018
F - 77–82 46–50 11–13a 19–20 - - - Ali and Ripley 1987
F - 77–82 (n = 2) 43–46 (n = 2) 12 (n = 2)c 19–21 (n = 2) - - - Abdulali 1976
F Sindh 78–82 (mean 79.5; n = 6) 42–45 (mean 42.8; n = 6) 12–13 (mean 12.6; n = 6)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
F Lahore 79–84 (mean 82.9; n = 8) 43–48 (mean 44.5; n = 8) 12–14 (mean 12.6; n = 8)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M - 80–89 (mean 84.9; n = 20) 40–51 (mean 46.8; n = 20) - - - - - Shirihai and Svensson 2018
M - 80–89 48–56 11–13a - - - - Ali and Ripley 1987
M - 78–88 (mean 83; n = 12) 46–52 (mean 49.5; n = 12) 10–13 (n = 12)c 19–21 (n = 12) - - - Abdulali 1976
M Kachchh, Gujarat 80–89 (n = 4) 43–50 (n = 4) 12–13.5 (n = 4)c 19–19.5 (n = 4) - - - Ali 1945
M Sindh 80–85 (mean 83.7; n = 11) 40–49 (mean 45; n = 11) 12–14 (mean 13.5; n = 11)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M Lahore 84–89 (mean 86.0; n = 9) 46–51 (mean 48.5; n = 9) 12.5–14.5 (mean 13.5; n = 9)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
U - - - 12.0–14.5 (mean 13.1; n = 34)a 10.0–11.4 (mean 10.8; n = 7)b 18.3–19.3 (mean 18.7; n = 7) 4–7 (mean 6.2; n = 6) - - Shirihai and Svensson 2018
U - - - - - - - 27–30 Rasmussen and Anderton 2012
krishnakumarsinhji F - 78.5 (n = 1)d 45 (n = 1)d 13 (n = 1)a,d - - - - Vaurie and Dharmakumarsinhji 1954
F - 75, 77, 78, 79 (n = 4) 43, 44, 45, 46 (n = 4) 10, 11, 11, 12 (n = 4)c 19. 20, 21 (n = 3) - - - Abdulali 1976
M - 65, 78, 80 (n = 3) 46, 46, 53 (n = 3) 11, 11, 11 (n = 3)c 19, 19, 21 (n = 3) - - - Abdulali 1976
U - 76–85 (n = 11) 42–50 (n = 11) 12.5–13.5 (n = 9)a - - - - Vaurie and Dharmakumarsinhji 1954
U - 76–85 (n = 11) 42–50 (n = 11) 12–13 (n = 11)a - - - - Ali and Ripley 1987
raytal F Uttar Pradesh 76 (n = 1) - # 19 (n = 1) - - - Abdulali 1976
F Burma 73 (n = 1) 43 (n = 1) 13 (n = 1)c 19 (n = 1) - - - Abdulali 1976
F Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 79 (n = 1) 43 (n = 1) 15 (n = 1)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
F Kalnahi, Uttar Pradesh 78, 80, 80 (n = 3) 38, 41, 41 (n = 3) 14, 15, 15.5 (n = 3)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
F Bihar 79, 80 (n = 2) 42, 44 (n = 2) 14, 15 (n = 2)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
F N Bengal 78 (n = 1) 41 (n = 1) 14.5 (n = 1)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M Uttar Pradesh 81 (n = 1) 52 (n = 1) 12 (n = 1)c 19 (n = 1) - - - Abdulali 1976
M Burma 80 (n = 1) 47 (n = 1) - 19 (n = 1) - - - Abdulali 1976
M Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 78, 83, 85 (n = 3) 44, 44, 49 (n = 3) 14.5, 16, 16 (n = 3)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M Kalnahi, Uttar Pradesh 78–85 (mean 80.5; n = 6) 38–46 (mean 40.8; n = 6) 15–16 (mean 15.5; n = 6)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M Bihar 83–86 (mean 84.5; n = 5) 44–49 (mean 45.6; n = 5) 14.5–17 (mean 15.9; n = 5)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M N Bengal 81, 85 (n = 2) 43, 45 (n = 2) 14, 16 (n = 2)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
M Assam 81 (n = 1) 43 (n = 1) 15 (n = 1)a - - - - Vaurie 1951
U - 74–83 41–47 c. 11–12b - - - - Ali and Ripley 1987
U - - - - - - - 31–34 Rasmussen and Anderton 2012
raytal/adamsi U - - 46–57e - - - 100–120 - Rasmussen and Anderton 2012

* - measurement styles vary: a - bill length to skull; b - bill length to feathering (measured to where culmen is covered by real feathers); c - unspecified
** - from front of crown to tip of tail
*** - length from bill tip to rear of skull
d - Type specimen
e - length from distal or lower edge of pygostyle (tail bone) to tip of longest complete rectrix
# - female with deformed bill – lower mandible measuring 14 mm while upper mandible is 9mm

Table 2

Linear measurements (in mm) for subspecies adamsi, krishnakumarsinhji, and raytal.

Values in parentheses refer to mean, standard deviation and sample size. NHMUK = The Natural History Museum, Tring, UK; MZUM = Michigan State University Museum, Ann Arbor, USA; AMNH = American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Wing flattened and stretched (maximum chord); bill length to skull; bill depth at nostrils.

Sex Measurement A. r. adamsi Sind (NHMUK) A. r. krishnakumarsinhji Kathiawar (AMNH) A. r. raytal West Bengal, Bihar (NHMUK) A. r. raytal ("vauriei") Palasbari (MZUM)
Female Wing 77.0–84.0 (80.4; 2.23; 11) 78.0–78.5 (78.2; 0.35; 2) 75.5–82.5 (78.1; 3.04; 4) 79.0–81.0 (79.7; 1.16; 3)
Tail 41.5–48.0 (44.1; 2.02; 10) 37.0–42.0 (39.5; 3.54; 2) 38.5–47.0 (42.1; 3.54; 4) 40.5–43.0 (41.5; 1.32; 3)
Bill Length 12.3–14.1 (13.1; 0.57; 11) 12.5–12.8 (12.6; 0.21; 2) 13.6–14.6 (14.0; 0.45; 4) 13.7–15.4 (14.4; 0.87; 3)
Bill Depth 4.4–4.9 (4.7; 0.16; 10) - 4.3–4.5 (4.4; 0.12; 3) 4.4 (–; –; 1)
Tail/wing 0.52–0.57 (0.55; 0.01; 10) - 0.50–0.57 (0.54; 0.03; 4) -
Male Wing 81.5–91.5 (87.5; 2.65; 13) 82.0 (–; –; 1) 82.5–86.0 (84.0; 1.12; 11) 81.5–84.0 (83.2; 1.19; 4)
Tail 45.0–49.5 (48.3; 1.38; 13) 43 (–; –; 1) 43.0–47.0 (45.1; 1.41; 11) 44.0–47.0 (45.1; 1.32; 4)
Bill Length 12.4–14.5 (13.6; 0.60; 13) 12.7 (–; –; 1) 14.2–16.0 (15.0; 0.57; 11) 14.1–15.3 (14.6; 0.51; 4)
Bill Depth 4.5–5.3 (4.8; 0.27; 8) - 4.3–4.9 (4.5; 0.19; 9) 4.3–4.7 (4.4; 0.19; 4)
Tail/wing 0.54–0.57 (0.55; 0.01; 13) - 0.52–0.56 (0.54; 0.02; 11) -

Table from PA (unpublished data)

Table 3

Wing formula for Alaudala raytal raytal (5 males, 5 females, all adult/first-adult)

Distances from wing tip on folded wing in mm (mean). Primaries are numbered descendantly (P1 is the innermost P).

P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10
12.5–15.5 (14.0) 7.5–9.5 (8.6) 2.5–4.5 (3.5) 0–1.5 (0.4) 0–0.5 (0.1) 0–2.0 (0.6) minute

Table from PA (unpublished data)

Recommended Citation

Ganpule, P. and P. Alström (2022). Sand Lark (Alaudala raytal), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (N. D. Sly, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.sanlar1.02