Sand Lark Alaudala raytal Scientific name definitions

Prasad Ganpule and Per Alström
Version: 2.0 — Published May 7, 2022

Priorities for Future Research


The priorities for further research are as follows:

1) The breeding biology is not well studied. The incubation period and the fledging period are not known, and details regarding the second brood are lacking. The size of nesting territory and home range is also not known, and neither are the reproductive successes and reasons for breeding failure. Breeding studies should be prioritized to understand how various factors affect breeding success or failure.

2) There needs to be a population assessment because there is no current population estimate of Sand Lark. Surveys should be carried out in suitable areas to assess the number of individuals present.

3) Though the Sand Lark appears to be tolerant of human activities, studies should be conducted about the specific effects of human activities on Sand Lark populations.

4) The life span, territoriality, and short-distance movements in the non-breeding season are not well studied and should be included in future research. This can be done by tagging a few individuals from different populations in different parts of its range in Iran, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

5) An integrative taxonomic study of Sand Lark, involving molecular studies, vocalizations, morphometrics and plumage details is prompted by the recent findings of deep mitochondrial DNA divergence and potential differences in song between A. r. raytal and A. r. adamsi (30, 31). The variation within the subspecies adamsi, especially with regard to distinctiveness of subspecies krishnakumarsinhji, should also be studied.

6) Strategies for conservation and management of the Sand Lark in different parts of its range should be determined so that the population remains stable.

Recommended Citation

Ganpule, P. and P. Alström (2022). Sand Lark (Alaudala raytal), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (N. D. Sly, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.sanlar1.02