SPECIES

Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii Scientific name definitions

Christopher J. Sharpe, Guy M. Kirwan, Nigel Collar, and Peter F. D. Boesman
Version: 2.1 — Published June 27, 2022

References

Literature Cited

  • 1. Whitney, B. M. (1996). Flight behaviour and other field characteristics of the genera of Neotropical parrots. Cotinga 5:32–42.http://www.neotropicalbirdclub.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Cotinga-05-1996-32-42.pdf
  • 2. Juniper, T., and M. Parr (1998). Parrots. A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
  • 3. Hellmayr, C. E. (1929). Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Part VI. Field Museum of Natural History Zoological Series volume 13, part 6.https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2750546
  • 4. Reichholf, J. H. (1983). Der Bestand an Typenmaterial der ornithologischen Aufsammlungen von J. B. V. Spix in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana (Supplement 9):417–423.
  • 5. Salvadori, T. (1891). Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20. Catalogue of the Psittaci, or parrots, in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, UK.
  • 6. Peters, J. L. (1937). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 3. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • 7. Pinto, O. M. O. (1938). Catalogo das Aves do Brasil e Lista dos Exemplares que as Representam no Museu Paulista. 1a parte. Aves não Passeriformes e Passeriformes não Oscines excluída a Fam. Tyrannidae e seguintes. Revista do Museu Paulista 22:1–566.
  • 8. Ridgway, R. (1916). The birds of North and Middle America. Part VII. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 50, part 7.https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7623708
  • 9. Tavares, E. S., A. J. Baker, S. L. Pereira, and C. Y. Miyaki (2006). Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Systematic Biology 55(3):454–470.
  • 10. Miyaki, C. Y., P. J. Faria, R. Griffiths, J. C. C. Araujo, and Y. M. Barros (2001). The last wild Spix’s Macaw and an Illiger’s Macaw produced a hybrid. Conservation Genetics 2(1):53–55.
  • 11. Brack, C. (1987). Some personal notes on Spix or Little Blue Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Wagler 1832) in captivity. Ratel 14(2):50‒51.
  • 12. Alvarenga, H. M. F. (2007). Anodorhynchus glaucus and A. leari: osteology, fossil records and former geographic distribution. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 15(3):427–432.http://www.revbrasilornitol.com.br/BJO/article/view/3010/pdf_501
  • 13. Collar, N. J., L. P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroño, L. G. Naranjo, T. A. Parker, and D. C. Wege (1992). Threatened Birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. Part 2. Third Edition. ICBP, Cambridge, UK.
  • 14. BirdLife International (2021). Species factsheet: Cyanopsitta spixii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/06/2021.http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/22685533
  • 15. Juniper, T. (2002). Spix’s Macaw. The Race to Save the World’s Rarest Bird. Fourth Estate, London, UK.
  • 16. Tobias, J. A., S. H. M. Butchart, and N. J. Collar (2006). Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding 1:4–22.
  • 17. Roth, P. (1985). Notes on Spix’s Macaw and observations on some other bird species of northeastern Brazil. Report on the excursion in search of Spix’s Macaw, June 22 to July 24, 1985. Unpublished report.
  • 18. Roth, P. (1986). Report on the second half of the project in search of Spix’s Macaw. Unpublished report.
  • 19. Juniper, A. T., and C. Yamashita (1991). The habitat and status of Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. Bird Conservation International 1(1):1–9.
  • 20. Olmos, F. (1993). Birds of Serra da Capivara National Park in the “caatinga” of north-eastern Brazil. Bird Conservation International 3(1):21–36.http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&pdftype=1&fid=7439248&jid=BCI&volumeId=3&issueId=01&aid=7439228
  • 21. Sick, H., and D. M. Teixeira (1979). Notas sobre aves brasileiras raras ou ameaçadas de extinção. Publicação Avulsas do Museu Nacional 62:1–39.
  • 22. Roth, P. (1988). Distribution, biology and actual status of Spix’s Macaw. Unpublished report.
  • 23. Ridgely, R. S. (1981). The current distribution and status of mainland Neotropical parrots. Proceedings of the ICBP Parrot Working Group Meeting. pp. 233–384.
  • 24. Keller, C. (1987). Up-to-date information on the Spix Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Wagler) and the environmental situation in Brazil. Unpublished report.
  • 25. Reiser, O. (1926). Liste der Vogelarten welche auf der von der Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften 1903 nach nordostbrasilien entsendeten Expedition unter Leitung des Herrn Hofrates Dr. F. Steindachner gesammelt wurden. Denkschriften Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klass 76:55–100.
  • 26. Pinto, O. M. O., and E. A. Camargo (1961). Resultados ornitológicos de quatro recentes expedições do Departamento de Zoologia ao nordeste do Brasil, com a descrição de seis novas subespécies. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 11(9):193–284.
  • 27. Roth, P. (1987). Distribution, actual status and biology of Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii: report on the 1987 activities. Unpublished report.
  • 28. Roth, P. (1989). Spix’s Macaw: population, actual status and biology of Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. Unpublished report.
  • 29. Keller, C. (1992). Em busca da Ararinha de Spix. Atualidades Ornitológicas 45:5.
  • 30. Roth, P. (1988). Populations, actual status and biology of Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii). Unpublished report.
  • 31. Roth, P. (1990). Spix-Ara Cyanopsitta spixii: was wissen wir heute über diese seltene Vögel? Bericht über ein 1985-1988 durchgeführtes Projekt. Papageien 3:86–88, 121–125.
  • 32. Pinto, O. M. O. (1978). Novo Catálogo das Aves do Brasil. Primeira parte. Aves não Passeriformes e Passeriformes não Oscines, com exclusão da família Tyrannidae. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • 33. Sick, H. (1985). Ornitologia Brasileira. Uma Introdução. Universidad de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.
  • 34. Juniper, A. T., and C. Yamashita (1990). The conservation of Spix’s Macaw. Oryx 24(4):224–228.
  • 35. King, W. B., Editor (1978-1979). Endangered Birds of the World: the ICBP Bird Red Data Book. Volume 2. Aves. 2nd edition. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Morges, Switzerland.
  • 36. Juniper, A. T. (1990). Spix’s Macaw - a lone survivor. World Birdwatch 12(3):13.
  • 37. Juniper, A. T. (1990). A very singular bird. BBC Wildlife 8(10):674‒675.
  • 38. Cavalcanti, R. B. (1988). Conservation of birds in the cerrado of Central Brazil. In Ecology and Conservation of Grassland Birds (P. Goriup, Editor). International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK. pp. 59–66
  • 39. Hämmerli, J. (1991). Haltung und Zucht des Spix-Aras (Cyanopsitta spixii). Gefiederter Freund 38:130‒145.
  • 40. Harrison, C. J. O., and D. T. Holyoak (1970). Apparently undescribed parrot eggs in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 90(2):42–46.
  • 41. Stattersfield, A. J., M. J. Crosby, A. J. Long, and D. C. Wege (1998). Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
  • 42. Sick, H. (1969). Aves brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção e noçes gerais de conservação de aves no Brasil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 41(Supplemento):205–229.
  • 43. Roth, P. (1987). A last chance to save Spix’s Macaw. Oryx 21:73.
  • 44. Low, R. (1972). Parrots of South America. John Gifford Ltd, London, UK.
  • 45. Vaughan, D. (1993). The Spix’s Macaw: on the brink of extinction. Bird Talk 11(10):26–30.
  • 46. Collar, N. J. (1996). Priorities for parrot conservation in the New World. Cotinga 5:26–31.http://www.neotropicalbirdclub.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Cotinga-05-1996-26-31.pdf
  • 47. Pinheiro, E. A. R., Q. D. J. Van Lier, and A. H. F. Bezerra (2017). Hydrology of a water‐limited forest under climate change scenarios: the case of the Caatinga biome, Brazil. Forests 8:62.https://doi.org/10.3390/f8030062
  • 48. Silva, J. L., O. Cruz-Neto, C. A. Peres, M. Tabarelli, and A. V. Lopes (2019). Climate change will reduce suitable Caatinga dry forest habitat for endemic plants with disproportionate impacts on specialized reproductive strategies. PLoS ONE 14(5):e0217028.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217028
  • 49. Gomides, S. C., T. M. Machado, J. C. Evangelista‐Vale, A. T. Martins‐Oliveira, J. C. Pires‐Oliveira, A. Muller, L. Barros da Rosa, D. L. Santos‐Silva, and P. V. Eisenlohr (2021). Assessing species reintroduction sites based on future climate suitability for food resources. Conservation Biology 35:1821–1832.https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13796
  • 50. de Oliveira, G., M. B. Araújo, T. F. Rangel, D. Alagador, and J. A. Diniz-Filho (2012). Conserving the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) biome under climate change. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2913–2926.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0346-7
  • 51. Steven, R., Morrison, C., and J. G. Castley (2015). Birdwatching and avitourism: a global review ofresearch into its participant markets, distribution and impacts, highlighting future research priorities to inform sustainable avitourism management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23(8–9):1257–1276.
  • 52. Dias, R., and V. O Figueira (2010). Turismo de observação de aves: um estudo de caso do município de Ubatuba/SP-Brasil. Revista de Estudos Politécnicos 8(14):85–96.
  • 53. Booth, J. E., Gaston, K. J., Evans, K. L., and P. R. Armsworth (2011). The value of species rarity in biodiversity recreation: a birdwatching example. Biological Conservation 144(11):2728–2732.
  • 54. Lugarini, C., Vercillo, U. E., Purchase, C., Watson, R., and N. A. Schischakin (2021). Conservação da ararinha-azul, Cyanopsitta spixii (Wagler, 1832): desafios e conquistas. Biodiversidade Brasileira 11(3):1–16.
  • 55. Corbari, S. D. A (2022). Raridade no contexto do turismo de observação de aves: o caso da ararinha-azul (Cyanopsitta spixii) e os desafios futuros. Revista Brasileira de Ecoturismo 15(3):307–328.
  • 56. Arndt, T., A. Sojer, H. Strunden, and R. Wirth (1986). 5 Minuten vor 12 für den Spix-Ara (Cyanopsitta spixii). Gefiederte Welt 110:321–323.
  • 57. Thomsen, J. B., and C. A. Munn (1988). Cyanopsitta spixii: a non-recovery report. Parrotletter 1(1):6‒7.
  • 58. Sojer, A. (1989). Spix-Ara (Cyanopsitta spixii). Zoologische Gesellschaft für Arten- und Populationsschutz Mitglieder Mitteilungen 1989:5‒6.
  • 59. Sojer, A., and R. Wirth (1989). Zur Situation des Spix-Ara. Voliere 12:139‒140.
  • 60. Silva, T. (1990). Der Spix-Ara (Cyanopsitta spixii) - gelingt seine Rettung durch Gefangenschaftszucht? Papageien 3:57–60.
  • 61. Silva, T. (1991). Der Spix-Ara (Cyanopsitta spixii) - gelingt seine Rettung durch Gefangenschaftszucht? Voliere 14:87–90.
  • 62. Smith, G. A. (1991). Spix’s Macaw Ara (Cyanopsitta) spixii. Magazine of the Parrot Society 15:164–165.
  • 63. Silva, T. (1994). Breeding the Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii at Loro Parque, Tenerife. International Zoo Yearbook 33:176–180.
  • 64. Silva, T. (1994). Breeding the Spix’s Macaw. American Cage-Bird Magazine 66(2):51–55.
  • 65. Sweeney, R. G. (1994). Breeding the Spix’s Macaw in captivity. Avicultural Society of America Bulletin 23(4):20–22.
  • 66. Anonymous (1995). Spix’s Macaw recovery project (Cyanopsitta spixii). Avicultural Society of America Bulletin 24(5):16–22.
  • 67. da Ré, M. (1995). Edging back from the edge of extinction. World Birdwatch 17(4):17–19.
  • 68. Sweeney, R. G. (1995). Spix’s Macaws at Loro Parque. Avicultural Society of America Bulletin 24(10):26–28.
  • 69. Sweeney, R. G. (1996). New pairings for Spix’s Macaw at Loro Parque. Magazine of the Parrot Society 30(11):23.
  • 70. Griffiths, R., and B. Tiwari (1995). Sex of the last wild Spix’s Macaw. Nature 375:454.
  • 71. Anonymous (1995). Last wild Spix’s Macaw gets mate. Cotinga 4:10–11.
  • 72. Anonymous (1995). Mate for lone macaw. World Birdwatch 17(2):4.
  • 73. Margolis, M. (1996). Single, lonely parrot seeks companionship. International Wildlife 26(1):50–54.
  • 74. Juniper, A. T. (1997). Last wild male may be a dad. BBC Wildlife 15(9):17.
  • 75. Mazar Barnett, J., C. L. Gomes da Silva, H. F. Pereira de Araujo, A. L. Roos, C. G. Machado, A. M. K. Uejima, and L. N. Naka (2014). The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 22(2):121–137.
  • 76. Butchart, S. H. M., S. Lowe, R. W. Martin, A. Symes, J. R. S. Westrip, and H. Wheatley (2018). Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227:9–18.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.08.014
  • 77. Silveira, L. F., and F. C. Straube (2008). Aves. Pp. 378–679 in:.http://www.ib.usp.br/~lfsilveira/pdf/l_2008_avesextbr.pdf
  • 78. MMA (2014). Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de Extinção. Portaria No 444, de 17 de dezembro de 2014. Diário Oficial da União - Seção 1. Nº 245, quinta-feira, 18 de dezembro de 2014.http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/images/stories/biodiversidade/fauna-brasileira/avaliacao-do-risco/PORTARIA_N%C2%BA_444_DE_17_DE_DEZEMBRO_DE_2014.pdf
  • 79. ICMBio (2018). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção: Volume III - Aves. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade and Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, DF, Brazil.https://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/images/stories/comunicacao/publicacoes/publicacoes-diversas/livro_vermelho_2018_vol3.pdf
  • 80. Barros, Y. D. M., Y. Soye, C. Y. Miyaki, R. Watson, L. Crosta, and C. Lugarini (2012). Plano de Ação Nacional para a Conservação da ararinha-azul: Cyanopsitta spixii. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Brasilía, Brazil.
  • 81. Reisfeld, A. (2018). Boa notizia para a ararinha-azul. http://www.savebrasil.org.br/ararinha-azul-ganha-duas-ucs/ (accessed: 20 June 2019).
  • 82. Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots (ACTP). 2019. Spix’s Macaw: A small blue parrot extinct in the wild. https://www.act-parrots.org/spixs-macaw/?lang=en. (accessed 20 June 2019).
  • 83. Reisfeld, A. (2017). Ararinha-azul: sucesso da reintrodução depende de caprinocultura sustentavel na caatinga. http://www.savebrasil.org.br/ararinha-newslettermaio/ (accessed 20 June 2019).

Recommended Citation

Sharpe, C. J., G. M. Kirwan, N. Collar, and P. F. D. Boesman (2022). Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), version 2.1. In Birds of the World (G. M. Kirwan, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.spimac1.02.1