Mongolian Short-toed Lark Calandrella dukhunensis Scientific name definitions

Per Alström and Sundev Gombobaatar
Version: 2.0 — Published September 17, 2021


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Walking, Running, Hopping, Climbing, etc.

It may run quickly on the ground with short tripping steps in a similar fashion to other Calandrella larks.


Preening, Head-Scratching, Stretching, Sunbathing, Bathing, Anting, etc.

Like many other larks, Mongolian Short-toed Lark may dust-bathe . In late August and early September, some individuals bathe during the hot time of the day (from ca 14:00 to 16:00). (GS).

Sexual Behavior

Not studied in detail.

Courtship, Copulation, and Pair Bond

When a male displays to a female on the ground it will run around the female with its crown feathers raised, throat feathers puffed up, tail raised above the horizontal, and head bobbing up and down (GS).

The song-flight is described under Sounds and Vocal Behavior.

Social and Interspecific Behavior

Degree of Sociality

After breeding, it may gather in flocks, sometimes consisting of more than one thousand individuals (4). Also in the winter quarters it is encountered in flocks (10).


Kinds of Predators

Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) prey on adult Mongolian Short-toed Larks on the breeding grounds, and extensively hunt inexperienced young birds in mid June to August (22). Corsac fox (Vulpes corsac), Daurian hedgehog (Mesechinus dauuricus), Haly’s viper [Gloydius halys],and Dione's ratsnake (Elaphe dione) prey on eggs and young chicks in their nests.

Recommended Citation

Alström, P. and S. Gombobaatar (2021). Mongolian Short-toed Lark (Calandrella dukhunensis), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.sstlar4.02