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This medium-sized barbet is one of the most characteristic and common birds of the Western Ghats of southwestern India and associated parts of the peninsula, being replaced in Sri Lanka by the closely related Yellow-fronted Barbet (Psilopogon flavifrons). Although largely a bird of moist forest habitats, it has expanded its range into several human-dominated habitats, and is now one of the most common birds in cities such as Bengaluru. It is readily distinguished from the larger Brown-headed Barbet (Psilopogon zeylanicus) by its white cheek-patch, higher-pitched call, and preference for wetter areas (although the two overlap in many areas). Largely frugivorous, its presence in parks and gardens within cities may be due to extensive planting of fruit trees, and it can sometimes be a pest in orchards. Its loud, ringing ku-troo calls are characteristic of the habitats it inhabits, and may be heard incessantly, especially during the warmer parts of the year. This barbet nests and roosts in excavated tree hollows, and is aggressive and territorial, competing fiercely with other barbets for suitable nest sites. Relatively well-studied compared to many other members of its family, this article summarizes what is known of the biology of this abundant, adaptable barbet.