White-crowned Manakin Dixiphia pipra
Version: 2.0 — Published April 2, 2020
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The male is all black, apart from the contrasting white crown and nape, with the feathers forming a flattened crest. In contrast, the female is green above, but grayer on the head, and paler below, especially on the throat and belly, ostensibly much like many other female piprids.
Male Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) is also all black, but has a deep blue crown. The obviously smaller-bodied Blue-rumped Manakin (L. isidorei), with which there is only limited geographical overlap, has a pale blue rump and uppertail coverts, a patch of color that is usually visible. Even females (or young males) of the present species should prove readily identifiable given their combination of dark red irides and a distinct gray cast to the crown and sides of the head, making this one of the most characteristic of the smaller manakins in non-adult male plumage (1).
The only available published information is that a ‘large young had the body covered with growing and fuzzy feathers’ (2).
Stiles and Skutch (3) considered that young are similar to adult females but generally duller and darker, with a yellow-tinged belly, and have brown irides. Zimmer (4) postulated this plumage is marked by more yellowish fringes to the remiges and browner wing-coverts; that the birds he was describing had softer-textured plumage validates his assertion that these individuals do represent true juveniles. Wetmore (5) noted that young males with the first white crown-feathers appearing on the forehead already have reddish irides. As in many manakins, males can be sexually mature prior to the acquisition of fully adult plumage (6). Data concerning plumage maturation were published by Ryder and Durães (7), who found that the first molt (body feathers alone) occurs within two months of leaving the nest, during which young males can acquire some signs of adult plumage but even if they do not, compared to adult males they still show molt limits in the wing-coverts (as do young females versus adults). The second molt occurs c. 1 year later and is typically complete: young males now acquire significant adult feathering on the head and body, but remarkably some still show no signs of adult plumage. However, by the third molt full adult male plumage is acquired.
Male. All black (perhaps slightly browner over the wings and tail) with a slight violaceous or steel blue gloss, and a strikingly contrasting snow white crown and nape, the long feathers of which form a flattened crest. Most of these white feathers have gray bases, except over some of the forehead (4). Belly and undertail-coverts are slightly less glossy black than the rest. Innermost axillaries are black, whilst the outer axillaries, underwing-coverts, and tibial feathers are dark gray, and the undertail-coverts can be narrowly tipped dark gray.
Female. Upperparts plain olive-green, becoming grayer over the crown and head-sides, and rather paler gray-green on the underparts, especially so on the throat and belly, and with most olive feathering on the breast and flanks. Wing-coverts, uppertail-coverts, and central rectrices slightly grayer than the rest, whilst the inner webs of the flight feathers are dull brownish black. Axillaries and underwing-coverts pale grayish white, with tibial feathering dark brownish gray. Can occasionally show male plumage: Haverschmidt (6) collected a female with well-developed ovaries that had several black wing-coverts and one black secondary, and Graves (8) noted several female specimens with small white feathers in the crown.
Very few published data (1), although Willard et al. (9) noted that just one of five specimens taken in southern Venezuela in late February and early March showed any signs of feather replacement (light body molt). Another (a male) from February taken in northernmost Brazil was also replacing some feathers (10), and Beebe (11) recorded that a bird taken in east Amazonian Brazil in early May had almost completed its molt, and that rectrices are replaced commencing with the central pair and proceeding outwards.
Generally dark, with a black or blackish maxilla, and a grayer or bluish-gray mandible, sometimes with a whitish base or tip, very occasionally the entire mandible is very pale (5, 12, 9, 13, 1). Bill structure is relatively similar to the species in genus Pipra, with relatively large nostrils, a reasonably arched culmen, and a slight hooked tip, the latter perhaps especially in males (1).
Generally amber or reddish orange to ruby-red in males, and dark brown to reddish orange in females, although there is undoubtedly much overlap in iris color between the sexes (5, 12, 9, 1). Hilty (13) considered that females might have more conspicuous eyes than males, perhaps because their irides are on average paler.
Legs and Feet
Overall length 8.5–11.8 cm (1).
Linear measurements (in mm, of nominate subspecies, from Kirwan and Green 1):
|Wing length||60.0–64.5 (n = 18)||62.5–65.5 (n = 5)|
|Tail length||25–33 (n = 18)||26–31 (n = 5)|
|Bill length||10.77–12.47 (n = 18)||10.92–12.47 (n = 5)|
|Tarsus length||13.81–15.17 (n = 14)||14.69–15.27 (n = 2)|
All subspecies combined: 9.1–15.5 g (males), 9.6–17.0 g (females) (14, 15, 3, 16, 17, 9, 18, 19, 1). Also male average 11 g, female 12.8 g (D. p. pipra), male average 10.6 g, female 11 g (D. p. separabilis), sexes combined average 14 g (D. p. anthracina).