White-crowned Manakin Dixiphia pipra
Version: 2.0 — Published April 2, 2020
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Mainly known via anecdotal studies and incidental observations, with the only detailed observations being from French Guiana (68, 81) and eastern Ecuador (82). Overall data were reviewed by Kirwan and Green (1). The nest and eggs are well described, but additional data from populations outwith Amazonia would be of particular interest, while neither the incubation nor the fledging periods are known, and all facets of the exclusively female (parental) care remain to be elucidated. Data on success, predation rates, post-fledging survival, etc., are completely unknown (1).
Egg-laying in October in Suriname (83), where both sexes recorded in breeding condition in February (15); in February–May, August and October in French Guiana (68, 81); in eastern Ecuador in mid December (65); in northern Brazil, June–October in Belém area (84, 76) and November–December in the Manaus area (2), where a bird was collected in breeding condition in late August (65). Elsewhere, in the Central Andes of Colombia birds are in breeding condition between March and May (52); in southernmost Venezuela, at the frontier with Brazil, both sexes were collected in breeding condition in February and March (9); and in the state of Amapá, in the far north of Brazil, almost at the border with French Guiana, the species was probably breeding between October and February (12); the isolated Atlantic Forest population in eastern Brazil appears to nest between October and December, based on specimens collected in Bahia (65).
An open cup of brownish-yellow (or similarly colored) vegetable fibers, fungal hyphae (Marasmius sp.: Marasmiaceae), and sometimes fragments of palm fronds, covered on the outside with dead leaves and bound together and to the substrate using spider webs, built 1.0–9.8 m above ground in the horizontal fork of an understory shrub or small tree, up to c. 19 m tall (84, 2, 68, 82, 65). Hidalgo et al. (82) reported a variety of measurements for some of the 13 nests they found in a study in the Ecuadorian Amazon: external diameter 4.3–5.8 cm (5.2 ± 0.7 cm, n = 6), internal diameter 3.7–4.5 cm (4.0 ± 0.3 cm, n = 6), and internal depth 0.5–2.6 cm (1.6 ± 0.7 cm, n = 6), constructed 50–150 cm (92.8 ± 34.0 cm, n = 11) from the central stem of the nest tree/shrub. Supporting plants have included a Qualea sp. (Vochyliaceae), in French Guiana (68), and Miconia fosteri (Melastomataceae) and Rinorea viridifolia (Violaceae) in eastern Ecuador (82).
Clutch two dirty white eggs, virtually entirely covered by vinous-brown markings (85, 84), although there can be substantial variation in both the depth of the background color and extent of the markings, even within the same clutch (65), size 20.5 × 13.5 mm (84).
No information (1).
Not described, and the fledging period is unknown (1).