White-crowned Manakin Dixiphia pipra
Version: 2.0 — Published April 2, 2020
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Occupies dense humid forest and adjacent tall secondary woodland, but is also found in younger secondary forest, sandy-belt and isolated ‘islands’ of forest in savannas in the Orinoco and Rio Negro drainage, including Amazonian caatingas or campinaranas (52, 58, 59, 1). In Ecuador, this manakins seems to be largely absent from level-ground terra firme forest, instead preferring hilly terra firme above 250 m (24). Also noted in palm-dominated várzea scrub including igapós on sandy soils (58, 13). Principally found in the lowlands, but recorded to 1,500 m on the Brazilian side of the Cerro de la Neblina (9), to 1,700 m in eastern Ecuador (35), 1,570 m in the Cerros del Sira, in eastern Peru (60), locally to 1,600 m in the Colombian Andes (52), and elsewhere on the east slope of the Andes in Peru to 2,000 m (54). In Costa Rica the species is largely restricted to the subtropics, at 800–1,500 m (3). In the Colombian Andes it generally occurs at 600–1,200 m (52), although at their northernmost extremity, the species has occurred as low as 100 m (53).