White-tailed Iora Aegithina nigrolutea

Prasad Ganpule
Version: 2.0 — Published October 22, 2020

Demography and Populations

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Demography and Populations

There are no dedicated studies on the demography and population of White-tailed Iora in India or Sri Lanka and no long term trends are available in the State of India's Birds report 2020 (31). It is not rare or uncommon in thorn scrub jungles in Gujarat in western India, especially in Kachchh and parts of Saurashtra. However, no population studies have been done in Gujarat or in other parts of its range.

Measures of Breeding Activity

No detailed studies done.

Intervals Between Breeding

Birds nest annually (PG).

Annual and Lifetime Reproductive Success

In Saurashtra and Kachchh, nests of White-tailed Iora were found in good numbers in its preferred habitat of thorn jungles. In a short survey in July 2012, four nests were found in about 1 km2 area (PG). But details of breeding success or number of fledged nestlings per nest are not known. Details of second brood also not known.

Life Span and Survivorship

No information regarding life span and survivorship. Generation length is estimated to be 4.8 years but further details not available (32).

Disease and Body Parasites

Out of 12 individuals trapped in India, 2 (16.66%) were found to have infections of Leucocytozoon spp. (33). Leucocytozoon is an avian blood parasite, transmitted by insect vector hosts, namely black flies (Simuliidae). Leucocytozoonosis causes anaemia and other diseases, often resulting in more fatality in young birds, while adults are more resilient (34). However, the effects of this infection on White-tailed Iora have not been documented. No information about body parasites or any other diseases.

Causes of Mortality

Damage of nest due to heavy rain observed twice in Gujarat. However, in both instances, chicks survived as nest was not totally destroyed (PG), but this could be a factor in chick mortality in others regions. Further study required.

No information regarding nest predation.

Population Spatial Metrics

No information available.

Population Status


There are no estimates of the population size in India or Sri Lanka.

But, it is locally common in areas of preferred habitat in western India (Morbi District in Gujarat). In a thorn scrub jungle, 30 individuals were noted in one morning while covering around 7 kms in this habitat (35).

In other parts of the country, it is said to be common in areas of thorn scrub and open woodland.


The State of India's Birds Report 2020 (31) estimated a current decline in the frequency of reporting by 2.87 % (CI = 15.15) over the past five years; this data reflects that the current population trend is unknown. The status of the species over the long term (20 years) is given as ‘Data Deficient.’

Population Regulation

No information available.

Recommended Citation

Ganpule, P. (2020). White-tailed Iora (Aegithina nigrolutea), version 2.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman and B. K. Keeney, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.whtior1.02