Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant Anairetes flavirostris
Version: 2.0 — Published July 9, 2020
Account navigation Account navigation
Welcome to Birds of the World!
You are currently viewing one of the free accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of the World. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this account.
For complete access to all accounts, a subscription is required.
Already a subscriber? Sign in
Four subspecies currently recognized, although most do not differ greatly from one another.
Anairetes flavirostris huancabambae
Spizitornis flavirostris huancabambae (Chapman, 1924) (3: page 8); type locality "Huancabamba, 6500 ft. [1979 m], Dept. Piura, northern Peru".
Andes of northern Peru (Piura and Cajamarca to south to Ancash and Huánuco).
Dark brown back strongly striped blackish, more extensive white in crown, and outer web and tip of outermost rectrices pure white.
Anairetes flavirostris arequipae
Spizitornis flavirostris arequipae (Chapman, 1926) (4: page 4); type locality "Arequipa, Peru".
West slope of Andes of southwestern Peru (south from Lima) south to northwestern Chile (Arica, Tarapacá).
Anairetes flavirostris cuzcoensis
Spizitornis flavirostris cuzcoensis (Chapman, 1924) (3: page 8); type locality "Cuzco, Peru".
Known with certainty from southeastern Peru (Cuzco); populations in other interAndean valleys north to Junín possibly this taxon as well.
Larger than other subspecies, with darker brown and more strongly striped back, more heavily and broadly striped breast, least extensive white in crown.
Anairetes flavirostris flavirostris
High Andes of Bolivia and in western Argentina (south to Mendoza and northern Chubut); east to Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos in non-breeding season.
See Appearance: Plumages.
Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant is part of the distinctive genus Anairetes, species of which are characterized by their small size and distinctive long but wispy crests. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests that Anairetes flavirostris is basal to the species pair Tufted Tit-Tyrant (A. parulus) and Juan Fernandez Tit-Tyrant (A. fernandezianus); unfortunately data from nuclear DNA are not available for A. fernandezianus (8). These three species in turn appear to be most closely related to Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant (A. alpinus) (8). An alternative hypothesis suggests that A. flavirostris and A. alpinus are sister species, which are in turn are sister to A. parulus and A. fernandezianus, although this relationship was not well-supported (9).
The genus Anairetes is sister to the genus Uromyias, the two species of which sometimes are included within Anairetes (10, 11, 12); these two genera in turn appear to be part of a clade that includes Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta), Serpophaga, the doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx), the tachuris (Polystictus), and Mecocerculus (13, 14,).