- Yellow Rail
 - Yellow Rail
 - Yellow Rail
 - Yellow Rail (Northern)

Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis Scientific name definitions

Lionel Leston and Theodore A. Bookhout
Version: 1.0 — Published March 4, 2020
Text last updated March 2, 2015

Sign in to see your badges


This secretive bird, the second smallest of North American rails, is likely more abundant than encounters would indicate. It is extremely difficult to observe because, like other rails, it prefers to run or hide instead of flying and commonly moves beneath procumbent vegetation. Sprunt's (Sprunt 1970: 197) description is revealing: “the Yellow Rail is much more like a small mammal than a bird. It slips silently through the grasses like a phantom, barely keeping out of the way of one's feet. The observer may be within inches of the birds and yet never catch a glimpse of them.”

The male's call during the breeding season, given most frequently after complete darkness, is a unique metallic 5-note call, click-click, click-click-click, easily imitated by tapping two stones together. Individual birds respond to such imitations, often approaching closely enough to be captured.

This species is widely distributed in the United States and Canada, chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains. Within the breeding range, however, its presence is quite local. Breeding birds generally inhabit fresh- and brackish-water marshes, preferring the higher (drier) margins. In autumn this rail is found in varied habitats such as hay fields, grain fields, and wet meadows, as well as in interior and coastal marshlands. Its principal foods are snails, other aquatic invertebrates, and seeds. The Yellow Rail, not legally hunted in any state or province, is listed as Threatened or Endangered in some states and as Vulnerable in Quebec. Vernacular names include Yellow Crake and Clicker.

Two subspecies are recognized in North America: Coturnicops noveboracensis noveboracensis of Canada and the United States, and C. n. goldmani, known only from the state of México, Mexico, and possibly extinct.

Figure 1.  Distribution of the Yellow Rail in North and Middle America. - Range Map
  • Year-round
  • Migration
  • Breeding
  • Non-Breeding
Figure 1. Distribution of the Yellow Rail in North and Middle America.

Very local breeder throughout range. Casual to other U.S. states.

Recommended Citation

Leston, L. and T. A. Bookhout (2020). Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.yelrai.01